ENSURING FOOD SECURITY IN ANAMBRA STATE THROUGH THE ACTIVITIES OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES
(A CASE STUDY OF IDEMILI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
The research work on the topic “ensuring food security in Anambra state through activities of cooperative society”. Using Idemili north local government area cooperative as a case study was carried out to survey the part programmes and policies constituted by government to mobilize peasant farmers into agricultural cooperative and the functional ones more productive as a way of facilitating the attainment of self sufficiency in agricultural productivity in the country.
Then general constraints that affect the achievement the objective of these agricultural cooperative and how it affects the cooperative in Idemili north local government was identified. These include ill conceived and inefficient extension service, inadequate farm storage facilities and organized implements. Complex land tenure system non restriction of membership which mighty bring in people of questionable characters whose membership may lead to the down fall of the society among others.
Finally to constraints, improved co-ordination between the state and local government authorities, should come in incessant change of government should be avoided and more trained personal employed as this is the only way to achieve the objective of constituting these cooperative.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of contents - - - - - - - viii
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - 4
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - 5
1.3 Objectives of the study - - - - - 6
1.4 Statement of hypothesis - - - - - 8
15 Significance of the study - - - - - 8
1.6 Scope of the study - - - - - - 9
1.7 Limitation of study - - - - - - 10
1.8 Definition of terms - - - - - - 10
2.0 Literature review - - - - - - 14
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 16
2.2 The importance of agriculture cooperative - 17
2.3 Problems of agriculture cooperative - - - 21
2.4 Government policies and programme on agriculture 28
2.5 The types and organization of agricultural
cooperative - - - - - - - 33
2.6 Roles of agricultural cooperative in
agricultural development- - - - 42
2.7 The roles of government and non-government
organization (NGO) in agric development - - 44
2.8 Suggestions for agricultural cooperative - - 47
2.9 Objectives of agricultural policy by government 47
3.0 Research design and methodology - - - 50
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 51
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - 51
3.3 Source / method of data collection - - - 52
3.4 Population and sample size - - - - 52
3.5 Sampling technique- - - - - - 53
3.6 validity and reliability of measuring instrument 53
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of data - - - 56
4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 56
4.1 Presentation of data - - - - - 56
4.3 Analysis of data - - - - - - 56
4.4 Test of hypothesis - - - - - - 63
5.0 Summary conclusion and recommendation - 67
5.1 Summary and findings - - - - 67
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 72
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 73
References - - - - - - - 77
Appendix - - - - - - - - 79
Agricultural is the bedrock of Anambra state economy, much empirical work has been carried out in the state and it is expected equally that a lot of contribution and research still need to be carried out. This has given rise to rise research work.
In this direction, therefore much attention has been paid to the neglect and reasons for the non-performance or near non-performance of the agricultural cooperative societies.
According to Osisioma (1985) in the sixties, the Anambra state economy has a mono sectoral dependency on agriculture as the main source of earning and the source of employment for the yearning population.
In the seventies we took one leap from the dependency on agricultural to a dependency on one commodity deviating from agricultural produce.
He continued by saying that Anambra state agricultural is still largely pleasantly with a large number of small-holders procedure and there has been no significant agrarian modernization and revolution. Anambra state has been an agrarian economy, deriving the bulk of her potential food and employment from the agricultural sector until the madrush of its citizens for white collar jobs.
According to the special report by Somotch Ukwu (1982) on the Anambra state food journal, it states that agricultural cooperative have produced a large number of the labour force mostly in the rural areas and equally contributed in the areas of solid food production both for man and for animals production of fiber for industries, production of foreign currency exchange for the country and all the materials from farm including cotton, wool, hides and skin.
Having realized all these, the government has seen the great importance of agricultural cooperative and crying to organize these present farmers into farmers agricultural cooperative with the view of having massive food production attainment of self sufficiency on agricultural produce in the state enhancing rural development expanding the export outputs, import substitution. Further production of cooperative was not able to meet with its desired objectives of both economic growth and transformation of the state. Summarily, one observes that agricultural in Anambra state is still semi-subsistence and the outputs from agricultural production can neither feed the teeming population nor produce the essential raw materials for the agro based industries. The export of the major cash crop which has in the past supported the economy virtually reduce, while a lot observes dwelt on the negligence and poor performance of the farmers agricultural societies, many other dwelt on the urgent need to revitalized the sector due to its importance.
Writing on the caption “Harvest of future” Igbesor, (1992) stated the Anambra state earned over 60 million form exports by 1992 and the agricultural present a clear picture of how that huge capital inflow was spent, it produced more than half of it. Its submitted that time is running out in the state to choose between its present peace meal approach to agricultural development or declare a war on desegregation of outputs which must be fought and won.
Furthermore, one wonders why it is taking the state so long despite its abundant land and know how to revitalize the cooperative societies since others have failed and cooperative seen the most promising to save large number of inhabitants an Anambra state that who are both under fed and hungry.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Despite the enumerated efforts being made by the government at federal and state level towards boosting agricultural produce, farmers and their productivity, there still persists food scarcity in the country. Population growth is more rapid than agricultural growth and this has sharply reduce the per capital benefits of increased food production and the associated increase and income. As a result many people in the country are still without enough food for example, between 1966/67 and 1975/76 agricultural outputs in Nigeria was recoded to be 0.05% percent per annum as against 3.4 percent per annum increase in population.
Considering the strategic position occupied by agriculture in the state economy, the allocation made to it and increase amount spent on importation of food, there is thus a great need to evolve a solution through the diagnosis of the problem these equally resulted to the collection of present farmers into agricultural cooperative with the view of improving agricultural production, increased income earning and sufficiency of food.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Nigeria has embarked on various programmers and policies costing hundred of millions of naira aimed at relieving depressed agricultural sector. In the view of this, agricultural cooperative was constituted so as to organize the small-scale farmers, who are still involved in manual labour type of farming into cooperative which has failed to produce enough food for our teeming population there forcing the country to be in important of large quantity of food with a huge percentage decline in agricultural exports. Considering the end results, all the government efforts have not actually had much significance improvement in this sector as much emphasis is now being placed on agricultural.
This call for urgent re-examination of these agricultural cooperative in ensuring food production, since its aim of facilitating the attainment of self sufficiency in agricultural production and making agricultural to take its prime position in the national economy of this country and this state in particular in danger.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of this report is to under take a study of the existing of the farmer’s cooperative societies and their effect in improving the development of agricultural objectives.
1. To examine the impact of the farmers cooperative societies
2. To examine the organization set up and the operation of the farmer cooperative movement in Anambra state with particular reference to agricultural cooperative in Idemili north local government.
3. To determine and investigate the problems facing the farmers cooperative
4. To suggest easy, simple ways and means for enhancing the effectiveness of these societies, attempts food production and assist in further research into contemporary.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis is stated as follows:
H0: increasing agricultural production significantly does not contribute to the activities of cooperative societies.
H1: increasing agricultural production significantly contributes to the activities of cooperative societies.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Agricultural is important in order to sustain any economy moreover bringing together the agricultural sector henceforth, and effort geared at carrying out research aimed at improving the agricultural production should be considered worth while any suggestion on the improvement of the sector. This is therefore considering the prevailing economy condition of Anambra state.
Presently, our farmers are not adequately remunerated despite the fact that they bend over double trying to make the state self-sufficient and self valiant in food production, they cannot compete with their counterpart nations. If they are organized, cooperative increased productivity enhanced, the profit maximized to them, farming will once more look attractive.
Based on the findings of the study and the suggestion preferred, it is strongly believed that the policy makers/government would courage peasant farmers to voluntarily join the cooperative societies. Moreover, healthy programmers and policies on cooperative should be mounted. It will enable the cooperative organization to adequately organize the cooperative farmers for increased food production.
Furthermore, college of cooperative, schools and researchers who wish to carry out research in this field have been provided a spring board from where they can take off.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will attempt to examine the policies of Idomili north local government cooperative on agricultural development which are ever changing and the importance of putting together of small scale farmers for increase food production.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There are a limitation / constraints in achieving the derived development in agricultural and proffering of possible solutions to overcome them, shall also be examine in the project report.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Most terms which are used in the project report may be unfamiliar or may have peculiar meaning and connotations these includes:
The index of the ration of the value of the total farm outputs to the values of the total inputs used in farm production.
The application of farming science and technology to the solution of the day-to-day problems facing the farms
We imply the registered byelaws made by a society in the exercise of any power conferred by the cooperative societies law
SMALL SCALE INDIVIDUAL FARMERS
This implies farmers whose total cultivatable farm land is not more than a hectare and whose farm labour requirement is largely, supplied by this family. He produces mainly for subsistence consumption and the little he sells is sold in a localized market. He requires low initial capacity investment farms and small-holding with simple technology and at least 60% of hid annual income from agricultural.
This means Anambra state cooperative federation limited. It is highest cooperative body in the state gives supervisory role to other cooperative bodies in the state.
According to international cooperative Alliance (ICA 1995) cooperative can be defined as an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural need and aspiration through a jointly owned and a democratically control enterprise.
This type provide individuals services to members, the cooperative main functions are to provide credit, supply and market and storage. They have no hand in the supervision and management affairs of member farm.
Here, there is a full integration the cooperative absorbs all the members. Business enterprises that is member economic responsibilities are born by the cooperative fund in Kibbuz Isreal.
PRODUCTION PROMOTION COOPERATIVE
This is cooperative by integration; the farmer depends on society for his production activities. There is a string link between the cooperative and members in the areas of management, market credit and decision making.