Comparison Of Various Processor Types

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COMPARISON OF VARIOUS PROCESSOR TYPES

ABSTRACT

A multi-core processor is single computing component with two or more independent actual central processing unit (called “cores”), which are the units that read and execute program instruction. The instructions are ordinary CPU  such as add, move data, and branch, but the multiple cores can run multiple instructions at the same time, increasing over all sped for programs amenable to parallel computing. Multi-core processor has become hot research are recently. Cache results in high cost to maintain consistency between different data copies in multi-core processor, especially many-core processors. A hybrid memory architecture is proposed for the specific multi-core processor which uses cache for insurrection while local storages for data. This paper focuses on the design and optimization of the proposed memory architecture. L1 instruction cache, local data storage, DMA engine, L2 Cache and MMU is designed and optimized. L2 cache replacement strategy is studied to reduce the total miss cost.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                     ii

Approval                                                                          iii

Dedication                                                                       iv

Acknowledgement                                                            v

Abstract                                                                           vi

Table of contents                                                             vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction                                                             1

1.1   Statement of problems                                             3

1.2   Objectives of study                                                   4

1.3   Scope of study                                                                 6

1.4   Significance of study                                                6

1.5   Assumption                                                             8

1.6   Definition of terms                                                   8

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   Review of relevant literature                                     10

CHAPTER THREE

3.0      Methodology for the fact finding and detailed

Discussion of the subject matter                             22

3.1   Methodology for fact finding                                    22

3.2   Detailed discussion                                                 23

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0      The future, implication and challenges of the subject

Matter for the society                                               27

4.1   Future                                                                      27

4.2   Implications                                                             27

4.3   Challenges                                                               30

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion          33

5.1   Summary                                                                         33

5.2   Recommendation                                                     38

5.3   Conclusion                                                              38

        References                                                               39

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

Multi-core processors represent a major evolution in computing technology. This important development is coming at a time when business and consumers are beginning to require the benefits offered by these processors due to the exponential growth of digital data and the globalization of the internet. Multi-core processors will eventually become the pervasive computing model because they offer performance and productivity benefits beyond the capabilities of today’s single-core processors.

Intel introduced the core brand in 2006 as a replacement for the Pentium M line of processors, and initial devices share much of the same technology with the current Pentium-branded offering. Follow ups to the original include the core Solo, Core Duo, core 2 Quad, core i3, core i5 and core i7 processor families. Starting with the core 2, core products were available for both laptop and desktop computers.

Everyone wants their machine to be faster. There are so many myths regarding performance, we felt it was time to analyze all the article out there are put the answers in one place. Computer company marketing departments work their magic to make use believe that we need every new incantation of each product. In this Hot Tip Article, we examine the real world performance improvements of various upgrades in technology. We will present you a short concise answer and include links to articles for your reading pleasure.

We also make some quick recommendations, but for detailed suggestion in each category, please refer to our data base.

-              New 90 – nanometer manufacturing processes have enables AMD to develop processors that deliver sophisticated technology to customers interested in performance, flexibility, and value.

-              Current operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, Linux, and solaris are now capable of benefiting from multi-core processors.

-              Multi-core processor offer an ideal plat form for enabling logical, incremental performance increase as market demands increase in the future.                 

1.1      STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

1.          Licensing Consideration: In multi-core processor the software are developed for charging customers a license fee for each server or processor an application is installed, so with multi-core the reinstallation becomes a problem is not provided yet.

2.          Planning considerations: In this term, multi-core processor is added the software licensing should be        considered a key factor when organizations try to decide on which applications to choose. For instance, software licensing can significantly cost higher then the server on which the application is running.

3.          Single-core processor: There will be no performance enhancement is execution of the particular software because of old software designed which troubled with multi-processors.

4.          Images and video processing: Intel is a campaign to make people multi-core aware and is encouraging vendors to be writing applications what leverage multi-core where the problem arises is back in the server you actually have to write it in parallel. This really is going to a problem, and most programmer don’t know how to write software in parallel.

                     

2.1      OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

1.        The multi-core technology makes possible higher performance, new valuable functionalities and lower power consumption. According to the semi conductor industry roadmap, the number of cores on a chip is expected to grow with 40% per year.

2.        The benefits are obvious, applications that were designed around uni-processor configuration can replace uni-processor cores with dual or quad core processor. The computing power of these configurations increase dramatically with no appreciable change in its physical configurations.

3.        impact of multi-core processors is fairly immediate on operating systems design. The OS has to adopt to support symmetric multi-processing (AMP), Two major approaches for support of multi-core processors.

4.     Virtualization is a techniques used to create an exaction environment for software that is  similar then the one it was originally designed for , but in a different hardware’s or operating system. This can be achieved usually at two levels, in the operating system or in hardware.   

 

 

        

1.3   SCOPE OF STUDY

 The researcher brought the study of comparison of various processor types of the means of internet, journals magazines and library due to time factor and also financial factor.

 

1.4      SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

1.     Multi-core processors have the potential to run applications more efficiently then single-core processors-giving users the ability to keep working even while running the most processor intensive tasks in the background, like searching a database rendering a 3 D image, ripping and burring music files to a CD, or downloading videos off eh web.

2.          Multi-threaded software applications programs that run multiple tasks (threads) at the same time to increase performance for heavy workload scenarios, such as data mining mathematical analysis, and web serving, are already positioned to take advantage of multi-core processors.

3.          Multi-core processors offer increased productivity within the same computing infrastructure companies are using today.

4.          Multi-core computers have the ability to run today’s applications as well as tomorrow’s more complex applications, which means that the hardware will retain its value over time.

5.          The growing complexity of software, as well as the desire of users to run multiple applications at the same time will accelerate widespread adoption of multi-core processor-bases systems. This will give commercial applications the ability to handle large amounts of data and more users faster and more efficiently, while consumers will experience richer features and more functionality, especially for applications life digital media and digital content creation.

6.          Expanded roles for PCS due to increased performance capacity, multi-core processor bases PCs will be leveraged for new tasks, including serving as the hub for digital entertainment in the home              

1.5         ASSUMPTIONS

Multi-core processor are the current technological solution that keeps all the CUP computational performance growing while satisfying the power and the cooling constraints imposed on high performance computing systems.

 

1.6      DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.          Multi-threaded application: Is one where processes are urn independently and concurrently with each other.

2.          Virtualization: is the creation of a virtual version of something, such as an operating system, a serve. Virtualization can also be viewed as part of an overall trend in enterprise IT that includes autonomic computing, a scenario in which the IT environment will be able to mange itself based on perceive activity, and utility, computing, in which computer processing, power is seen as utility and clients can pay for only as needed.

3.          Architecture: The term architecture can refer to either hardware or software, or to a combination of hardware and software.

4.          RAM: Random access memory is form of computer data storage. A random-access device allows stored data to be accessed in very nearly the same amount of time for nay storage location, so data can be accessed quickly in any random order.   

 

 

 

 

 

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Comparison Of Various Processor Types

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