Consumer’s Protection

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Background of study .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .       

Statement of problem        .        .        .        .        .        .        .       

Objectives of the study      .        .        .        .        .        .        .       

Research formation            .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Significance of the study .  .        .        .        .        .        .        .       

Scope of study                    .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Definition of terms             .        .        .        .        .        .        .


Review of related literature        .        .        .        .        .        .       

Historical dimension          .        .        .        .        .        .        .

(origin of consumer protection) .         .        .        .        .        .

Basic  for consumer protection .         .        .        .        .        .

Marketing concept and consumerism .       .        .        .        .

The Nigerian consumer      .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Consumer protection practice in Nigeria     .        .        .        .

The role of communication in consumers protection ..


Research methodology       .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Sources  of data         .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Population of study   .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .       

Sample size determination .       .        .        .        .        .        .

Sampling technique .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Research instrument used .       .        .        .        .        .        .

Questionnaire administration    .        .        .        .        .        .

Method of data analysis .   .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Limitation of the study      .        .        .        .        .        .        .


Data presentation Analysis and interpretation .  .        .        .

Presentation of data           .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Analysis and interpretation of data .   .        .        .        .        .


Summary of finding and recommendation .         .        .        .       

Summary of finding ..        .        .        .        .        .        .

Recommendations     .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Conclusion        .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Bibliography .    .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .

Appendices      .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .       













Chapter one


1.1      background of the study 

We live in a small world where basically great number of individuals and firms produce solutions to consumer’s needs and wants. In trying to give out these solutions in exchange for money, consumer’s toes are stepped upon either knowingly or unknowingly. A many hands swings towards satisfying consumers, it hits the noses of some consumers yet it continues to swing. That is to say, it has been assumed that market place afford the consumer sufficient and accurate information, an adequate choice of goods and likelihood of good product performance.

         This is not always the case, at times consumers are not adequately informed, may be purposefully mislead, may be offered restricted choice of consumer alternatively, has few channel, to seek redress for the these wrongs.

         Fortunately these mequalities are the exceptions rather than the rule but, they have accord with enough regularities to promote what has come to be known as consumerism.

         Kotler (1988:142), defined consumerism as ‘an organised movement of citizens and government, to strengthen the rights and powers of consumers “buyer in relation to seller”.

         Onah (1979;127), sees consumerism of marketing concept” Assael (1979; 674), sees consumerism as “a conglomeration of separate group, each with its own particular concern which sometimes from temporary alliances on particular issues”

         Many organizations and individuals have sprout up to curb this marketing malpractice not an protection of consumer’s rights.

         According to black law Dictionary a, consumer is “one who consumers, purchases, uses, maintain and disposes products; users of final product” consumer as “in individual purchases, uses or disposes product or service” both definitions are similar.

         Consumer protection according to money (2003;20) citing Encyclopaedia American is “safe guarding the buyer public from fraudulent and unfair selling practise as well as from dangerous or inferior goods and services.

         As allegations of corporate abuses in the marketing increases, it calls for more laws and efforts for the protection of consumer’s rights. Such allegations are highly overwhelming, but not withstanding various organisations and individuals are trying to alleviate and if possible eradicate this menace.

         These organisations and individuals that act as consumer protectionist includes the governmental agencies and non- governmental agencies such as national Agency for food and Dry administration and control (NAFDAC), standard organisation of Nigeria (SON), National Draw Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and consumer protection organisation(NCN), consumer organisation of Nigeria (CON), consumer campaign foundation (CCF), consumer Right association of Nigeria (CRAN) consumer Awareness organization (CAD), etc.              

1.2      statement of problem

It is a truism that there is a high incidence of fake and substandard product in Nigeria. The problem which gets across various product fields including drugs is noticeable even in the supply of services. Most often consumers find themselves saddled with shoddy services or even non-performance.

Unfortunately, they rarely seek redress due to number of reasons, the most prominent reasons being ignorance about the extent of protection accorded by law.

The supply of shoddy products and services constitutes a big problem to the consumers, the manufacture and the government. On the part of the government and its agencies, the law level of protection often leads to unpleasant experiences. A case in point is the ban on importation of drugs from Nigeria by some west African countries in 1990, this was sequel to the death of some children who were administered with adulterated paracetamol syrup. Infact, the prevalence of fake and substandard drugs constitutes a serious problem tot he health sector, governmental sector demonstrates its concern as it has taken various measures to eradicate the spread of fake and substandard products, one of which is the enactment of statute which imposes several and severe penalties for consumers offences.

On the part of manufacturer, it won’t be an exaggerations are yet to imbibe marketing concept in whatever strategy they are formulating and thereby becoming a full fledged consumers protectionist. This has indirectly and directly affected many organisations in a negative way. Most time, manufactures of genuine products are exposed to unnecessary completion with manufacturers of fake products whose products are invariably cheaper in price. In order to remain in business and also safeguard the interest of the consumers of his products, he may resort to intensive communication and “advice to the public on how to detect the “difference”. This strategy which is capital intensive naturally pushes up the price of genuine product, thereby in addition, the presence of fake brands may lead consumers to show the product in question for fear of purchasing the fake brands. The manufacturer of the genuine products losses out in long run.

On the part of the consumers, the supply of fake or sub- standard products denies him proper worth for his money worse still, the product may be injurious to health thus, exposing him to health hazards for instances, in the recent past, many stories have been  heard of death cases resulting from sub standard products. The 2004 indomine “palaver” has kept painful memories in the mind of money.

Alechenu (2004; 8) told a disheartening story of how an ordinary but essential palm oil is being adulterated. Our markets today are filled with industrial salts that his being sold to consumers for consumption. Salako (2006;8) wrote on her   experience with v-mobile on how she was charged for credits  she never consumed. This is very prominent with the telecommunication industries, they bill you high and yet services are not rendered efficiently.

Adekunle (2005), wrote on how consumers Right project (CRP) petitioned Nigeria communication commission (NCC) on increase in GSM tariffs. Step into the office of the power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) and see what is obtainable there your are charged or billed for power you never saw let alone consumed, decide to complain about your bill, what do  you find? A rude and non – challant attitude.

Akinsunmi (2009;3) wrote on a story about the collapse of a building resulting from an inequality services from the building contractor which damage property worth billions of naira and irrecoverable lives. Our break bakeries are now something else, although many have taken measures to abide to NAFDC regulations. However, a basic measure s seems as if it has been overlooked. Breads are moved from bakeries to the retailers shop incovered. Even when it gets to the retailers shop, it takes the hatching of eggs into the pupa stage before it is covered. This is very detrimental to consumer lives.

The increase in food poisoning and sub- standard goods and services in our society is very alarming. The list is just inexhaustible. The overview issues is actually communication medium should play a role in tacking these Threateners, than what kind of role should be played and how does it play it these and other related problems form the focus of this study.                  


The broad objective is to identify the role of communication in consumers’ protection. Other objective includes;

a.   To examine the subject matter of consumer protection practices with a view of ascertaining the extent of consumer protection in Enugu.

b.   To determine the extent of consumer rights violation in Enugu.

c.   To ascertain the extent of consumers awareness concerning consumer protection law in Enugu.

d.   To find out various organizations involved in consumer protection policies.

e.   To determine the extent of communication in consumer protection practices.

f.    To draw out the desirability or otherwise of more consumer protection practices that to be played by communicators.

g.   To make recommendations based on findings.

1.4      research questions

1.     Does the council have enough laws to regulate the activities of consumers and producers or sellers.

2.     To  what  extent has the council  played a significant role.

3.     Is public awareness beneficial to the activities of the council

4.     To what extent does the council has ability to solved the problems faced by consumers from sellers and producers.

1.5      significance of the study

The findings and recommendations made base on this study will be very crucial t communication. It will disclose the responsibility as regards to protecting consumers right in the cause of advertising products, knowing fully well and having accepted the principle that corporate profitability is in extricable its consumes. Therefore, communication agencies being part of consumers, elevate the organisation and help them swim freely in wave of completion.

Consumers of various products will also gain immensely from this study knowing that they have a right which they can stand for and in their interest. Also for references purposes and literature review, this study will be beneficial to readers who will engage in writing on related topics.

Above all, the researcher are not left out, the researchers will gain more knowledge and open up areas of interest for further research in similar area.       

1.6      scope of the study

this research work is intended to cover consumer’s protection in Enugu state as well as to find out the protection law which government has established and agencies which are supposed to protect the consumer’s right.

Findings will move the researcher further to ascertaining the responsibility of communication towards guiding consumers right because, a lot of marketing malpractices still abound in the society.   

1.7      definition of terms

Communication:       is the process of expressing ideas or information to a person or group of people.

Advertisement:          is a notice, picture or film telling people about a product, job or service 

Consumerism:           This is the set of activities by consumers groups, government agencies and business organisation designed to protect the consumers.

Marketing:                 This is the identification analyzing and production of goods and services at a profit.

Protection:                 this involves the ability to guide consumers from consuming adulterated product.

Profit:                         this is the data of a company under research concerning their project mode of operation managerial ladders.










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