Using Critical, Creative And Caring Thinking In Developing Nigerian Youths

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Pedagogical education has made many to toil in wasteful activities without discovering their innate potentials. This study seek to address the problem of youths through CACT Education. CACT is an educative approach that helps to stimulate the thinking capacity of children and motivates them in reasoning. With CACT method, everybody is an inquirer or philosopher. The main goal of CACT is to seek for truth and clarity of ideas. No truth is the absolute and this method of educating children in the classroom is what will help to bridge the missing link in the chain of education and that is reasonableness.








Title page         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i

Approval page -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii

Abstract   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iii

Table of contents     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi


1.0      Introduction     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       1

1.1      Background of the study  -       -       -       -       -       1

1.2      Statement of the problems -    -       -       -       -       5

1.3      Purpose of the study -      -       -       -       -       -       6

1.4      Significance of the study -       -       -       -       -       -       6

1.5      Target audience       -       -       -       -       -       -       6

1.6      Research questions -       -       -       -       -       -       -       7

1.7      Research methodology     -       -       -       -       -       7


2.0   Review of related literature -    -       -       -       -       8

2.1      Analyzing and synthesizing critical and creative

thinking   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       8

2.2      Critical thinking depends on critical reading   -       11

2.3      Explanation of caring thinking        -       -       -       -       29


3.0   Expose of the study         -       -       -       -       -       -       45

3.1   Exposition of Nigerian system of education – pedagogy 45



4.0   Implication of the study   -       -       -       -       -       50

4.1   Principle of Cact     -       -       -       -       -       -       50

4.2   Goals of Cact  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       51

4.3   CACT in practice      -       -       -       -       -       -       53



5.0   Summary, Conclusion, recommendations       -       -       58

5.1   Summary   -     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       58

5.2   Implication of the findings       -       -       -       -       58

5.3   Recommendation -  -       -       -       -       -       -       60

5.4   Limitation of the study     -       -       -       -       -       60

5.5   Suggestion for further studies -       -       -       -       -       60

        References -     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       61


Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

The importance of critical thinking and creative thinking in educational system in Nigeria

1.1     The Background

Critical Thinking:

Critical Thinking leads to self realization; it is way of thinking positively not negatively, also method of thinking about thinking which is the key to thinking critically. (Marzano, Robert) et al mentioned the skills involved in critical thinking  which are the;

(a)        Honesty

(b)        Rationality

(c)         Self-awareness

(d)        Open-mindedness

(e)         Discipline

(f)          Judgement

(g)         Tolerance

(a)        Honesty – Thinking in honesty way which is positively not negatively (D.N) (198) pp. 18-9.

(b)        Rationality: The ability to combine problems together and reason what to do not just to take non-critical thinking also finding the best explanation on evidence and ignore the ones that is not good.

(c)        Self-awareness: Thinking most have thought, conscience and them mind have be aware of what thought is in the mind, be aware of the person thought.

(d)        Open-mindedness: The mind have to be aware and opened to have a positive thoughts, not non-critical thinking.

(e)        Discipline: The thinking must be well checked and well thought understand the right thoughts and wrong one. It will be well trained in other to achieve a critical thought and creative thought.

(f)          Judgement: The mind must be checked and find different and collect the good thought and avoid the unused ones.

(g)        Tolerance: Thinking must have self-evidence, tolerance the ones the person feels as a good thought before saying or using it to solve problems.

Creative Thinking: The ability to give the interpretation of mind can be positive on negative. One would have thought that more enlightened attitude towards person would have thought that greatest appreciation of person’s capacity to be aware to thinks for himself and to reason about to metaphysical and epistemological issues. Also it insistence on the idiosyncratic character of persons experience liberated that person from treatment as an underdeveloped adult at school and at home.Anih (2001) highlighted the various processes involved in CACT. They are:

a)          Observes self in the process of thinking.

b)          Monitors and corrects self in the process

c)           Can suspend thinking, judgements, and evaluations.

d)          Knows the difference between thinking, sensing, and margining and can use each selectively.

e)           Checks for errors and has standards for the communication of ideas.

f)            Asking Questions from observations.

g)           Giving reasons and distinguishing good reasons from bad ones.

h)          Co-operation/collaboration stages.

i)            Dialogue spirit requires care and commitment.

j)            Critical and creative thinking, Dialogue is also essential for the building of common purposes and understandings in terms of any kind of growth.

k)          It is an art to be though, studied and practical and as such it is not a result of a quick fix up. 


Nigerian system of education is in shambles because of inappropriate approach towards solving educational problems. Valuable democratic principles are not practiced in our educational system. People no longer live with the spirit of brotherhood. Youths in Nigeria wants to ascertain their individuality through deviating from the social norms, engaging in examination malpractice, robbery, violence, kidnapping, wearing indecent clothes and cultism. Many people want to become noticed, nobody wants to listen and care for his brothers’ ideas and existence. The point of inquiry is ‘if everybody is talking who critically analyzes, evaluates and understands his neighbor?



This study seeks to look into exposing critical, creative and caring thinking as the solution to developing Nigerian youths.


The study is important because it will help to enlighten our educational administrators and curriculum planners, parents and teachers on the right approach in relating with young people and also on the right dimension to follow in order to solve the existing problems in Nigerian educational system.


The study is meant for

1)          The students teachers

2)          The teacher educators

3)          The curriculum planners

4)          The educational administrators.


1)          In what ways can we implant the spirit of caringness, belongingness, cooperation and collaboration among students in classroom activities?

2)          How can good teacher-student relationship be built?

3)          Can the CACT improve teacher’s effectiveness?

4)          Can the principles of CACT improve student’s effectiveness?

5)          To what extent can CACT values help to improve youth’s behavior in various schools?


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Using Critical, Creative And Caring Thinking In Developing Nigerian Youths