INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, SCHOOL TYPE AND
LOCATION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF IN-SCHOOL
ADOLESCENTS IN NSUKKA ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA
The study sought to determine the influence of emotional intelligence, school type and school
location on achievement in Mathematics and English language of senior secondary school
adolescents in Nsukka Education Zone. Five research questions and five hypotheses guided
the study. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. The study was conducted in
Nsukka Education Zone, which is located in Enugu North Senatorial Zone of Enugu state.
The target population of the study comprised of all the 4,738 adolescents in senior secondary
two (SSII) in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. A sample of 474 students, 237
males and 237 females obtained through non-proportionate stratified random sampling
technique from eight schools in Nsukka educational zone was used for the study. A
questionnaire was used to collect data on the students’ emotional intelligence while a
proforma was used to collect students’ past scores in Mathematics and English. Data
collected were analysed using means simple and multiple linear regression analysis, and t-test
of independent samples. The findings of the study revealed that emotional intelligence affect
students’ achievement in mathematics and English Language. School type and location also
influence the achievement of students in mathematics and English Language. One major
implication of the findings is that emotional intelligence and school type could predict 16.3
percent and 16.8 percent of variations in students achievement in mathematics and English
Language respectively. Emotional intelligence and school location could predict 12.80
percent and 10.70 percent of variation in students achievement in mathematics and English
Language respectively. Emotional intelligence of students which hitherto has not been taking
seriously in school is an important variable in students achievement and more importantly
when considered along with school type and location. It was recommended among others that
there should be emotional intelligence training for teachers and school administrators to
ensure a better emotional intelligence grooming of the students.
Background of the Study
Adolescence is referred to as a stage between childhood and adulthood. It denotes the
period from the beginning of puberty to maturity. It usually starts at about age 14 in males
and age 12 in females. In school adolescents refers to the adolescents in schools and they are
often noticed in secondary schools. It is a period associated with “stress and storm”. It is
often physical, psychological, social and cultural expressions of emotions. It is noticed that at
this adolescent stage, their emotions are high and may lead to so many changes in their
academic achievement (Goleman, 1995). Goleman further stated that adolescence are known
to be full of life and capable of carrying so many activities socially, psychological,
historically, biologically and otherwise. Adolescence can also be defined as the physical
transition marked by the onset of puberty and the termination of physical growth; cognitively,
as changes in the ability to think abstractly and multi-dimensionally; or socially, as a period
of preparation for adult roles (Schneider, 1999).
For the purpose of this study, adolescence refers to as a transitional stage of growth
marked by changes in physical, physiological, psychological and emotional development of
students. Interestingly, developmental psychologists focus on changes in relations to parents
and peers as a function of school structure and pubertal status. This school structure in
adolescence stage of development directly or indirectly sprout future adolescence behaviour
or rather form his personality while in school.
Therefore, in-school adolescence connotes a typical school adolescent. A thorough
understanding of in-school adolescence in society depends on information from various
perspectives, including psychology, biology, history, sociology, education, and anthropology.
In-school adolescence is a period of multiple transitions involving education, training,
employment and unemployment, as well as transitions from one living circumstance to
another (Betz, 2002).
Within all of these perspectives, in-school adolescent is viewed as relating to school
activities and that of the adolescent on the course of development, through a transitional
period of cognitive development between childhood and adulthood, whose cultural purpose is
the preparation of children for adult roles while in school. This preparation is so because, it is
in the school that adolescents acquire basic tenets of cognitive and/or intellectual
development. Cognitive advances encompass both increases in knowledge and the ability to
think abstractly and to reason more effectively. According to Piaget, (1986) the ability of the
adolescent to solve complex problems is a function of accumulated learning and education.
Hence, an in-school adolescent is a typical adolescent who is in school; be it college or high
school, poised to acquire learning experiences necessary to transit into adulthood (Schneider,
1999). For the purpose of this study, an in-school adolescent could be referred to as students
in secondary schools. Such persons have emotional challenges that may influence their
academic achievement in Mathematics and English language. Of which, English and
Mathematics is a necessary prerequisite for students transition into higher education.
Among all academic subjects studied at school, Mathematics and English language
have distinctly contributed to the objectives of general education of man such as: 3Rs-
Reading, Writing and Arithmetic (Aderinonye, 2003). The importance of Mathematics and
English Language cannot be over emphasized in Nigeria education system. Students are
required to pass them at credit level to be qualified to gain admission into the university. This
is because English and Mathematics is a yardstick for measuring students’ achievement in
terms of transition into higher educational system.