Causes Of Truancy In Secondary Schools (a Case Study Of Arumeru District Tanzania)

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 The issue of truancy in Tanzania is a critical problem now days.Most students they do not complete their course of study becouse of truancy which lead them to drop out from schooling.most students especially girls are ending up by geting married and those who are not married are geting pregnancies.most boys who are truant are employed for liltle wages and others using drugs and others engage in criminal issues.The study want to realise all social economic factors contributing to this tendency in order to improve the education of the children for the super development of the nation at large.


1.1    Background of the Problem

 Truancy is a serious problem in Tanzania education system today which need highly attention in schools administrators, and teachers in schools in order to prevent high rate of students drop out from schooling( centre for street children) In school truancy is a term used to describe any intentional unauthorized absence from compulsory schooling. Children today lose over hundred days of their time to stay at school through truancy. The young girls and boys of the schooling age are not at school in steady working in entertainments areas eg, Clubs, ( Scheff, 2007).


Reducing  truancy  and  exclusions

levels  are  an important  part  of Government  social inclusion

policy. Young people who attend

school regularly are more likely to get the most they can out

of their  time

at  school, and therefore more likely to achieve their potential,

and less likely to

take  part  in

anti-social  or  criminal  behaviour(

exclusion  unit,









There is some evidence showed that poor literacy is, in some cases, a causal factor. An early survey by the Children's Society showed that the majority of those who are permanently excluded are boys aged between 13 and 15, most having started secondary school with a


reading age behind that of their peers. This is backed up by Ofsted who reported that poor attendance was within those students who are poor readers ( exclusion unit 1998).

 Recommendations by the ( Social Exclusion Unit) report include dealing early with children's literacy and numeracy problems so that they catch up, and providing extra-curricular activities and experiences to improve motivation among those at risk of becoming disaffected. Teenage girls who are excluded from school should not be overlooked either,otherwise they should be helped in order to achieve in their education.


(,com/Joseph Rowntree Foundation report 1998).



Children who play truant from school very often select the classes they want to miss. Usually the subjects they skip are ones the student finds difficult or boring, possibly a clash with the teacher is to blame. One common pattern is for truants to attend school for morning and afternoon head counts, but somehow sneak out during most of the day. Missing lessons is bad news for any young person and truancy is likely to have a negative impact on their overall education and job prospects/progress. Children who constantly turn up late for lessons are disruptive to other students and the school's learning environment, and truanting has a negative effect on school morale. It should also be noted that children who are truanting could be in


physical danger  or  at  risk  from being drawn into  criminal activity           ( Susan


Scheff 2007).

1.2       Statement of the problem



The studies shows that the causes of truancy in schools is such as shortage of teachers,poor teaching methods,economic problems,political situation,personal matters and school setting ( scheff,2007).The number of schools in Tanzania has increased to high extent in such a way that every ward in a country is having a secondary school so that students may not move a very long distance to go to school. The education opportunity is therefore to all students in a nation.There is several programs for the goverment to train teachers who will teach in these secondary schools in order to reduce the shortage of teachers and facilitate the provision of education in a nation. Some more factors might be responsible for this problem of truancy in our schools. The scope of this study is to find out those factors which might associate to truancy in secondary schools in arumeru district in arusha region.


1.3       Purpose and the objectives of the study.

 The purpose of this study is: To investigate social, economic factors that contributing to truancy in secondary schools.


1.3.1 Specific objectives.

(1)               The study was finding out the contribution of community to truancy in secondary schools.


(2)               The study was finding  out the contribution of school setting to truancy.             Research questions


 Ø  To examine  whether paying school fees contribute  to truancy in Tanzania?.

 Ø   To examin if the infrustructure  are the factor for the truancy?



 Ø  To find out if the school setting  influance  truancy?.

 Ø  To find out if the social relation    of teachers and students influance  truancy?.

Ø   To find out if  the mid-day meal influance  truancy?.

 Ø   To  find out if the distance from home to school have relation with truancy?.

 Ø  To find out if the teaching methods which are used in teaching are contributing to truancy?.

 Ø  To find out if the monthly salary received by teachers is influancing the behaviour of truancy?.

 Ø  To examine  how school morale is related to truancy?.


1.4       Significance of the study.

It is the researcher’s hope that this study will help all educational stakeholders like the Ministry of Education, parents and teachers to understand and rectify the existing problem of truancy in secondary school students. The study will help in management of schools in order to facilitate the provision of education in Tanzania and out of Tanzania.This study will be able to show both teachers and students the causes of truancy and they will be able to handle the situation.The parliament will be able to create laws which will guide the students at school and fail to practise truancy. example those students who are not attending school becouse they are employed or it is observed that the number of schools has already increased and the morale on the part of students is decreased due to truancy, and due to truancy most of students are engaging in the criminal activities .This study might come up with the causes then the suggestions will be given in order to improve this problematic phenomena in secondary schools.


1.5    Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

 Theory:”Truancy    has    a    negative     effect    on    learning     enviroment           and     school

 morale”( scheff,2007).The students who are always truanting are usuallyperfoming poorly in class,disruptive and the situation lead them in to drop up from schooling. Education is very important for the better development.Education received through regular attending to school is a big/fundamental instrument for the development and help to seek individual competence in the future career/professional progress/perfomance.


REASON:The researcher want to find the couses of the truancy and be able to suggest thepossible way/strategies to be used in order to abolish and help to get positive class room

climate and rise good school morale.The theory is linking to my study especially now days in Tanzania schools many students are perfoming poorly and other drop from schooling.



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Causes Of Truancy In Secondary Schools