The Influence Of Modern Instructonal Materials In Teaching And Learning Of The English Language In Junior Secondary Schools (a Case Study Of Ebonyi Local Government Area Of Ebonyi State)

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ABSTRACT

The topic of research was the influence of modern instructional materials in teaching and learning of the English language in junior Secondary schools in Ebongi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Three research questions were constructed to guide the study. Literature was reviewed under four major sub-headings, namely; conceptual framework, theoretical framework, reviews of empirical studies, and summary of literature review. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was (326) of the junior principals and the teachers in junior secondary schools. The sample size was (150) respondents randomly selected from the population. The questionnaire was validated by two experts in Measurement and Evaluated and my project supervisor. To ensure the reliability of the items, the questionnaire was tested, and re-tested to the same respondents within the interval of two weeks. The instrument for data collection was four points scale questionnaire. The data collected was analysed using simple percentage. The findings of the study was that modern instructional materials influence the junior secondary school students by motivating their interest to learn, increasing the students’ regularity in classroom, and encourages learners’ active participation in teaching and learning situation. It was also found that why teachers may not use modern instructional materials was that they lack it in junior secondary schools, they also lack technical know-how. Unsteady power supply and high cost of fuel price may also affects the use of modern materials in teaching English. It was also found, that through government provision, societal donations, and individuals or parental provision are some of the possible ways in which junior secondary schools may acquire modern instructional materials. Based on the findings, recommendations was made which include: that government should organize workshops and seminars to train the teachers on how to use modern instructional materials, government, parents and the society where schools are established should try   their possible best to make sure that they provide modern instructional materials for the junior secondary schools.      

                                                    TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE                         i        

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                                   ii   

DEDICATION                                                                                                           iii 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT     iv

ABSTRACT   v

TABLE OF CONTENT         vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 

Background to the Study       1

Statement of the Problem       5

Purpose of the study                                                                                                   6

Research Questions                                                                                                    7  

Significance of the Study                                                                                           7

Scope of the Study                                                                                                     8         

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature Review        9

Conceptual Framework                                                                                               9

Definition of terms                 10

Concept of modern instructional materials                                                                 11

Types of instructional materials                      12

Advantages of modern instructional materials                                                           15

Problems encountered in the use of modern instructional materials               17

Solution to the problems encountered in the use of modern instructional materials 19

The roles of teachers in the effective selection and utilization of

modern instructional materials                        20

Evaluation of modern instructional materials                                                             21

Theoretical Framework                                                                                               22

Empirical Studies                                                                                                        26

Summary of Literature Review                                                                                  28  

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODO

Research Design         30

Area of the Study                                                                                                       30

Population of Study    31

Sample and Sampling Techniques      31

Instrument of Data Collection            32

Validity of Instrument                                                                                                32

Reliability of Instrument                     33

Method of Data Collection                 33

Method of Data Analysis                   33

Decision Rule              34

CHAPTER FOUR:PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Presentation and Analysis of Data                 35

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION,

RECOMMENDATION AND SUMMARY

Discussion of Findings                       39

Conclusion of the Findings                 43

Educational Implication of the Study                        44

Limitations of the Study                                 45

Recommendations                                                                                                      45

Suggestion for Further Study                                                                                     46

Summary of the Study                        46

Bibliography                                                                                                               48

Appendix                                                                                                                    50

Questionnaire              51           

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Research has made it obviously known among educators that the educational experiences involving the learner actively participating with concrete examples are retained longer than abstract experiences. Instructional materials add elements of reality by providing concrete examples for learning. Many authors have written on the use of instructional materials in teaching the English Language in order to enhance teaching for desired social and behavioural changes. Kochar [2007] opined that the use of modern instructional materials like phones, projectors and other related devices promote learners active participation and reduces boredom during teaching and learning of the English language. 

           Furthermore, other authors like Okafor (2006), Mkpa (2009), Agwunokobue (2005), Nzewunwa (2008), Adeleke (2008), and many more emphasized that the use of instructional materials is a sine qua non in affecting behaviour of learners of every field, especially the English Language. It was equally shown by some of the authors that these materials are important catalysts of social reengineering and change. It is obvious that the English language teaching and learning cannot be well accomplished without the use of instructional materials especially the modern instructional materials.  The reason is not farfetched. Advances in technology have brought instructional materials especially the projected and electronic materials to the forefront as the most radical tools of globalization and social development which have affected the classroom teaching and learning situation positively. Such technology or technological breakthrough as network and non networked projected and non projected, visual and auditory, audio-visual electronic materials are important landmarks in knowledge transfer. With them both teaching and learning                                 become very interesting and pleasant experiences.

Moreover, Instructional materials pose some inherent advantages that make them unique in the English language teaching. For one thing, they provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and references, the learners’ interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. Furthermore, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. They generally make teaching and learning easier and less stressful. They are equally indispensible catalysts of social and intellectual development of the learners.

           However, Bolick (2010) pointed out good relationship between the teachings of the English language and using of modern instructional materials. He argued that while some educators have been fascinated by the potentials of modern instructional materials is to enhance teaching and learning, teachers lacked in using modern instructional materials during teaching and learning. Ene (2015)  opined that modern Instructional materials are integral components of teaching and learning situation. It is not just to supplement learning but to complement its process.

           Modern instructional materials so to speak, are made up of objects such as printed materials, audio, audio-visuals that aid in the successful delivery of the English language lesson (Chuba 2006 page 75). To this end, instructional materials are said to be objects or things the teachers can use in the classroom while teaching in order to ease off the classroom activities. However, instructional materials cannot address all the teaching learning problems but it can go a long way in solving them, simply because they are additional apparatus that can influence the reality of teaching and learning activities.

             JOffi (2010 page 86) explained that, the concept of teaching aids has gone through several evolutionary stages from the simple aids, instructional technology. This however, tells us that instructional materials are not just objects or equipments used during teaching learning process but those objects improvised by the teacher to make conceptual abstraction more concrete and practical to the learners.

            Notwithstanding,  Modern instructional materials are the relevant materials utilized by a teacher during the English language instructional process for the purpose of making the contents of the instruction more practical and less vague. Instructional materials are indispensable factors of any teaching learning process. Ordinary words or verbalization has been found to be inadequate for effective teaching. Instructional materials serve as a channel through which message, information, ideas and knowledge are disseminated more easily. They can therefore be manipulated, seen, heard, felt or talked about. They facilitate activities. They are among things or anybody the teacher turns to for help in his teaching process.

            Meanwhile, instructional materials group the learners’ intellect and eliminate boredom. Some of the unique qualities of instructional materials is speedy learning and accuracy. It makes the work easier, more appealing, accurate, neater and boosting for clarity of the English language concept. If the English language is to be learnt effectively, it must be experienced. One of the biggest draw back in the use of instructional materials is inadequate supply of instructional materials.

           Therefore, teaching of the English language in respect to its scope and nature, which is multidimensional, integrative and dynamic, cannot effectively take effect without the use of instructional materials. The teaching of the English language contents must focus not only on making teachers competent at using instructional materials, but at the same time, promote strategies that enables the integration of instructional materials that enhance teaching and learning of English language goals and objectives.

          Furthermore, instructional materials as an act of giving help normally by teachers to provide help and encouragement in students’ activities. Mkpa [2009] further described instructional materials as a tool which can easily be used by a teacher to correct wrong impressions and to illustrate things that learners cannot forget. The major aim of using instructional materials in the English language is to achieve excellent result. 

Statement of the Problem

             The relevance of the English language in one’s educational pursuit cannot be overemphasized. It is obvious that no matter the subject that students are learning in junior secondary schools, be it Social Studies, Basic Science, Civic Education, Home Economics, Mathematics, etc; they ought to have a sound knowledge of  the English language, both in spoken and written form.

            But the English language subject is lacking instructional materials that will enhance the understanding of its learners. This lack of materials for effective teaching of the English language may be one of the reasons why most of the students in junior secondary schools do not have much interest in the English language subject.

              The difficulty in creating mental pictures of the English Language lessons in the cognitive domain of the learners may be the cause of junior students’ hatred on their English language teachers. This hatred may results in failing the English language subject in both internal and external examinations.

            It is on this ground that modern instructional materials may become necessary for solving the above stated problems. This is because modern materials serve as a platform where the learners of English can interact with the learning materials, which could be an auditory devices, visual devices or audio-visual devices. Modern instructional materials affirm the saying that “what we hear, we know but what we see, we remember.”      

Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this research is to uncover the influence of modern instructional materials in teaching and learning of the English language in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi local government area of Ebony state.                                                                       

  • To identify the ways in which modern instructional materials may influenceteaching and learning of the English language in junior secondary schools.       
  • to identify the major reasons why teachers may not use modern instructional materials in teaching the English language in junior secondary schools,
  • To identify the possible ways in which junior secondary schools may acquire modern instructional materials.

Research Questions

  • What are the ways in which modern instructional materials may influence the performance of junior secondary school students in the English language subject?
  • What are the major reasons why teachers may not use modern instructional materials when teaching the English language in junior secondary schools?
  • What are the possible ways of acquiring modern instructional materials in junior secondary schools?

Significance of the Study

            This research work is of great importance, not only to the junior secondary school teachers but also to the teachers as a whole. This is because it creates awareness to them on the need of using modern instructional materials especially the audio and audio- visual materials in teaching and learning situations.                                                       Furthermore, this research work is also important to the Government and the proprietors of private schools. This is because it encourages them to provide modern instructional materials for the teachers and students in their various schools.

              Notwithstanding, this research enlightened school managements on the need to provide in-service training and learning process. It also prompts government to organize seminars and workshops to teach teachers how to use modern materials in teaching and learning process.

                Finally, this research work will be of great value to other researchers who may be caring out their research on the similar topics. This may be possible because it will serve as one of their research materials.  

Scope of the Study

            This research work covers ten randomly selected junior secondary schools in Ebonyi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

The result obtained from the analysis of data collected from the schools will be taken as a reflection of the prevailing conditions in all the junior secondary schools in Ebonyi Local Government area of Ebonyi State in General.

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