Trends In Primary –six Pupils Achievement Causes And Solutions (a Case Study Of Enugu-east Local Government Area)

Get the Complete Project Materials Now! »





This study investigated the trends in primary-six pupils achievements: causes and solutions, in a case study of Enugu East Local Government Area. It aims at identifying the trends, causes and solutions to primary-six pupils academic performance in relation to their FSLC examinations from 2000 to 2004. The instrument used to make the research work a success include documentation, questionnaire and review of materials already written by others. For instance, through documentation pupils’ academic performances were collect from the six (6) selected primary schools in Enugu East L.G.A., in the same manner, the questionnaire were administered to only the primary-six teachers in three selected schools. Documented data collected (pupil’s achievements) and the result of the questionnaire, were further analyzed in the data analysis, it was discovered that some pupils fare better than the other , also it discovered which subjects they perform poorly or well, which year they perform better or worse, the number of pupils that are qualified to be awarded FSLC in each year and it also revealed the possible reasons and solutions to pupils’ poor academic performance. The study recommended, among other that government should strive to attain her educational goals as stipulated in NPE (2004), such as providing educational services like counseling, educational resource centre, specialist teacher in core curriculum subjects etc. However, the work was done in chapters and chapter one deals with the introductory part of the work followed by background of the study, statement of problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study. Chapter two discuses the review of literature already written by eminent authors on the topic or related topics. In chapter three, the method adopted is explained. Chapter four deals with the data presentation and analysis collected through documentation and questionnaire finally, chapter five comprise the findings, summary, implications, recommendation and conclusion.


Cover Page      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      i

Title Page-      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      ii     

Certification Page     -      -      -      -      -      -      iii

Approval Page  -      -      -      -      -      -      -      iv

Dedication       -      -      -      -      -      -      -      v  

Acknowledge    -      -      -      -      -      -      -      vi

Table of Contents     -      -      -      -      -      -      vii

Abstract   -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      x



1.1      Background of the Study-      -      -      -      1

1.2      Statement of the Problem        -      -      -      7     

1.3      Purpose of the Study       -      -      -      -      7

1.4      Significance of the Study-      -      -      -      8

1.5      Scope of the Study  -      -      -      -      -      9

1.6      Research Questions-      -      -      -      -      9



2.0  Literature Review

2.1 Primary School Core Curriculum-      -      12

2.2 Roles of these Core Curriculum Subjects in the

      Society.     -      -      -      -      -      -      -      - 20

2.3 Pupils Academic Performance in the Core -      -

     Curriculum  -      -      -      -      -      -      -      - 26 

2.4 Causes and Solution of Pupils Academic    -      -     

     Performance in their First School Leaving

     Certificate.  -      -      -      -      -      -      -      - 30         


        3.0   Research Methods    -      -      -      -      -      38

3.1       Research Design     -      -      -      -      -      38

3.2       Sources of Data      -      -      -      -      -      39

3.3       Population of the Study   -      -      -      -      40

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques   -      -      40

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection-      -      41

3.6       Method of Data Collection and Analysis   -      42

3.7       Validity of the Instrument       -      -      -      42

3.8       Reliability of the Instrument    -      -      -      43


4.0      Presentation  and Analysis of Data  -      -      -      44


5.1       Findings and Discussion   -      -      -      -      -      53

5.2       Implications of the Findings     -      -      -      -      58

5.3       Recommendation or Suggestion for

further Studies-      -      -      -      -      -      -      59

5.4       Conclusion      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      60

Reference      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      62

Appendix        -      -      -      -      -      -      -      64




As our primary schools sweep along on the incoming tide of new teaching techniques, many teachers find that the old methods they have used in teaching and learning are becoming increasingly inadequate.

This work is an attempt to find out the trends in primary six pupils’ achievements, mostly in their core curriculum. Core curriculum for primary education shall include: mathematics, English language, primary science and health education – national policy on Education (2004)

Background of The Study

According to oxford Advanced Learner’s dictionary (2001) “Trend” is a general direction in which a situation is changing or developing. It is also to have for take a general course or direction – The new international Webster’s comprehensive dictionary of the English language (2004). It refers to recent or latest development in a particular field or endeavor.

Primary school pupils as referred to in National policy on Education (2004), is the education given on institutions for children aged 6 to 11 plus. The significance of this level of education cannot be over-emphasized, Adigun (2002) noted. She concluded that it is the foundation upon which all other levels of education are built. No wonder, World Education Encyclopedia Vol.3 (2002) asserted that one of the government’s major concerns regarding primary education has been the goal of upgrading the qualifications of elementary school teachers. These efforts by the governmen5 may be to improve pupils’ achievements (academic performance).

        Academic performance, according to google web definition chosen by voters (2010), refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. Academic performance of any child is very important. That is possibly why, Ejili and Anyanwu (2006) asserted that academic performance aids an individual to learn something worthwhile for a living.

Apparently, the trends in primary six pupils’ achievements (academic performance) in first school Leaving Certificate (FSLC) is viewed as the recent development in education of pupils between the ages of 6 to 11 plus with reference to their academic achievement particularly in relation to primary school subjects like mathematics, English language, primary Science and health Education as core curriculum subjects stipulate by National Policy on education (2004). Mathematics, simply put, is Science of structure, order,   number, space and quantity, Soyemi (2007) asserted. The continued, it is a relationship which revolves around the elementary practice of counting, measuring and describing of shapes and objects. Mathematics is pre-requisite for the study of Sciences. It is the father of Science said Attah (2006). Though some people still believe that mathematics is the mother of Science but the issue at hand is the centrality of mathematics in Science and technology and hence the inclusion of mathematics in this study.

According to Eze (2000), mathematics is a core subject in both primary and secondary schools in Nigeria but amazingly it has become a masquerade in Nigeria today.

Possibly, this mentality was gathered on the basis that mathematics is very hard to understand. Eze (2000) also asserted that mathematics is a subject that has been found to be feared and disliked by a lot of pupils and students. Adewoye (2002) comments that pupils fail mostly the Science subjects in public examinations, some even drop them not understanding that they are the basis of strong foundation in Science and technology.

        English Language is taught in primary schools in Nigeria as stipulated by National Policy on Education (2004). This possibly informed when Eneh-Onyejeli and Uchechukwu (2008) wrote that:

English Language is the name of a course offered in schools, universities, and other institutions. The aim of the course is to provide students with information about the “knowledge and skill in the use of the language”.

This expression, English language also refers to the name of a Language.

English language is a second language in Nigeria, possibly because indigenous languages could not serve as a national language. Sadly. In case of English Language, pupils in some primary schools don’t know how to speak it because the language is not our mother tongue. Though many people speak it and many don’t speak it and some of those who claim to speak it do not know how to speak it. Another set of pupils in some primary schools believe that they have known English language because their parents may be teaching them the language at home. The effect of ICT on English language study is understood differently by different people. For example, some people argued that the birth of technology in Nigeria brought blessing, while others say it has brought curse to them. This is because pupils and students have form the habit of using improper spelling or self invented vocabularies such as “sstr” for sister “sch’ for school, “dat” for that, etc. to send emails, phone text messages to friend and siblings across the country. These habits have stopped them from enhancing their vocabulary in English Language. Today, some pupils and students don’t know how to start letter writing, not talk of, knowing correct spellings. No doubt, these may pose the reason for the inclusion of English Language in this study.

        Primary Science is the branch of science in which the rudiments of science subjects are taught – oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary (2001). It is also the study of physical science and study of living things, materials and physical processes, google web (2010) asserted. As said earlier Adewoye (2002) comments that pupils fail mostly the Science subjects (ie. Primary Science)in public examinations, some even drop them not understanding that they are basis of strong foundation in science and technology and hence the inclusion of primary science in this study.

        According to google web definition (2010), health education is the profession of educating people about health. Areas within this profession encompasses environmental health, physical health, social health, e motional health, intellectual health and spiritual health. Odumusu, Amao-Kehinde, osifeso, Mbah, Eyetsemitan, Isiaka and manuwa (2004) stated that it is the health conditions related to prevention of diseases. This may informed the reason for the inclusion of health education in this study.

Pupils in primary schools are advised to work hard to enhance their academic performances because these core  curriculum subjects cannot be dodged in tertiary institutions level, and also they serve as the key to success or failure of any student in course to be studied.


1.2   Statement Of Problem  

Looking back at the past decades, particularly between 2000 to 2004, and from these backgrounds so far, the questions that agitate these researchers’ minds are:

i.            How did the pupils fare in these subject in their FSLC?

ii.          Which of the subjects did they do well or poorly?

iii.         Which year did they perform better or worse?

iv.        How many pupils are qualified to be awarded FSLC in each year?

v.          What were possible reasons for pupils poor or good achievements (academic performances) where they occurred?

vi.        What are the possible ways of solving these problems or improving on the good achievements?


1.3   Purpose Of The Study

The purpose of this research is to find out the trends in primary six-pupil’ achievements (academic performance) oftheir core curriculum: Causes and solutions and to know exactly, the following:

i.            The Pupils that fare in these subjects in FSLC.

ii.          The subjects that pupils do well or poorly

iii.         The year pupils perform better or worse

iv.        Total number of pupils that is qualified to be awarded FSLC in each year.

v.          The possible reasons for pupils’ poor or good achievements (academic performance) where they occurred.

vi.        The possible ways of solving these problems or improving on the good achievements.


1.4   Significance Of The Study

This research when completed and published will benefit the following individuals and corporate bodies, Viz the researchers, younger students, teachers, primary schools, curriculum planners, Local and State ministries of education and parents or guardians. The researchers will benefit at the completion of this study since the knowledge they will gain will be worthwhile.

Young students and primary school pupils will benefit through the study of journals in which these study may be put into at it’s completion. They will know exactly the trends in primary-six pupil academic performance between 2000 – 2004. Teachers, Local and State government, ministries, and parents or guardians will benefit through the study of this work at it’s completion. That is, they will get to know the answers to the questions asked in the statement of problem, and also its possible solutions.


1.5   Scope of the Study  

The scope of this research is focused on the trends in primary-six pupils’ achievements (academic performance) in first school leaving Certificate (FSLC) subject such as in mathematics, English language, primary science and health education from 2000-2004.

A case study of Enugu East local Government Area, Enugu State.


1.6                  Research Question

i. How did the pupils fare in these subjects in their FSLC?

ii. Which of the subjects did they do well or poorly?

iii. Which year did they perform better or worse than others?

iv. How many pupils are qualified to be awarded FSLC in each year?

v. What are possible reasons for pupils poor or good achievements (academic performance) where they occurred?

vi. What are the possible ways of solving these problems or improving on the good achievements?




Get Full Work

Report copyright infringement or plagiarism

Be the First to Share On Social

1GB data
1GB data
1GB data