This project deals with the design and implementation of a radio controlled car lock with 5-minutes ignition deactivation facility capable of locking a vehicle using a remote control from a distance. The system is designed in two functional units; the transmitter which is an RF handheld remote control, and the receiver units. The receiver unit is realized in several modules. A tuned radio frequency receiver (TRF) output is used to trigger a bistable multivibrator configured using CD 4013 whose output is used to trigger the car lock switch. The four doors of a conventional car are represented using four push and hold switches wired to trigger a 5-min delay circuit realized with Ne555 timer in monostable mode. The system works in such a way that if your car is snatched at gunpoint, you simply press the remote and the car locks by switching off a green LED before the armed robber zoom off. And once any of the doors is opened and closed, the vehicle automatically comes to a stop after five minutes. And the ignition lamp goes off too. The system also contains a reset switch installed at a recessed location in the car for resetting the locking system when the car is found. Due mainly because of the area of application, the system is chordless.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 General description of the project - - - 2
1.2 Objectives of the project - - - - - 3
1.3 Significance of the project - - - - - 4
1.4 Scope of the project- - - - - - 4
1.5 Project report layout- - - - - - 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Historical Background of the Project - - - 6
2.2 Theories and models relevant to the design - 7
2.2.1 Electronmagnetic spectrum (Range and Radio
wave - - - - - - - - 7
2.2.2 Tuned Class C Amplifiers - - - - 12
2.2.3 Tuned Radio Frequency (T.R.F) Module - - 14
2.2.4 Multivibrator - - - - - - - 15
2.2.5 How Car Ignitions Work? - - - - - 19
2..3 Other system components Description - - 22
2.3.1 Resistor - - - - - - - - 22
2.3.2 Transistor Static Switch and Electromagnetic
Relay - - - - - - - - 27
2.3.3 Transformers - - - - - - - 30
2.3.4 Junction Diodes - - - - - - 32
2.3.5 Voltage Pegulator 78xx - - - - - 34
CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
3.1 Descriptions of the system building blocks - 36
3.2 Block diagram development into working circuit 37
3.3 System design specification - - - - - 39
3.4 The power supply unit - - - - - 40
3.5 Principle of operation of the system- - - 40
3.6 System design calculation - - - - - 42
3.7 Complete Circuit Diagram of the System- - 43
4.1 Implementation- - - - - - - 45
4.1.1 The Transmitter - - - - - - 45
4.1.2 The Receiver Unit. - - - - - - 45
4.2 Testing - - - - - - - - 46
4.2.1 The Transmitter Unit - - - - - 46
4.3 Result - - - - - - - - 47
4.4 Project packaging - - - - - - 48
4.5 Bill of engineering Quality- - - - - 50
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of Achievement - - - - - 51
5.2 Problems Encountered and Solutions - - - 51
5.3 Suggestion for Further improvement - - - 52
5.4 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 53
User guide - - - - - -- - - 54
RADIO CONTROLLED CAR LOCK SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1. Background of the Study
The present innovations relate generally to wireless transmitters and more particularly to remotely controlled operations which employ RF transmitters and Receivers. With the invention of GPRS, GPS, 3G, 4G, GSM and the internet people in different parts of the world can communicate and control some operation effectively. Putting into consideration the above milestone, there is vital need to incapacitate car thieves using a wireless technology. Because of this, a thorough research was embarked on Remote control car lock with 5-minutes ignition deactivation facilities. This system prevents car snatchers from disappearing with the vehicle. It frustrate them five minutes after closing of any of the car doors. It arrests the issue of car snatching and deactivation in real time, without any delay. It is made up of a portable handheld RF remote control which should always be in the driver’s pocket. And the receiver is installed inside the vehicle.
1.2. Problem Statement
Owing to the high rate of unemployment in the country social vices have been on the increase. This menace has called for individual security of lives and properties. All over the world, car lifting is a threatening social vice people have lost their vehicles, worth of billions of dollar, to car thieves and sometimes their lives. These is utmost need to come-up with a means of tracking car thieves by demobilizing the vehicle irrespective of their location using wireless technology regarding the harms that have been caused by car lifting/ thieves, I deemed it necessary to embark on the project design and implementation of a radio controlled car lock with 5 minutes ignition deactivation facilities. This system should be able to lock the vehicles ignition system and deactivated it/brings the car to a stop, 5-minustes after closing and of the doors. This device should use a radio frequency (Rf) technology.
1.3. Aims and Objectives of the Study
i. The aim of this project is to design and implement a radio controlled car lock with 5-min ignition deactivation facility capable of discontinuing the movement/motion of a vehicle snatched at Gunpoint using remote control.
ii. The objectives of this study are; to develop a prototype system that can be used to lock and deactivate an automobile snatched at gunpoint using RF remote control.
iii. To develop an automotive device which can be powered using car battery.
iv. To develop a system which can use Rf remote to lock a vehicle.
v. To develop a module which can switch the ignition of vehicle using the car doors
1.4. Significance of the Project
This project work signifies a lot in computer, electrical and electronic engineering. It is used in deactivating vehicles a snatched at gunpoint, also has many relevance in telecom. A project of this nature will be very vital in security/surveillance. This design can be modified to function as an RF remote controlled electronic appliance – this will make it have ground in domestic and industrial settings. The project can be used in office and home locks. This device, if funded and developed, will sell like a German burger.
This project work is a prototype of the real – life system which would be used in a vehicle. This device would be able to lock the car ignition system by pressing an Rf remote control at a maximum range of 100 meters. This system would be able to deactivate the ignition system of the vehicle after a period of 5 minutes any of the doors is opened and closed. This device can only lock and deactivate the vehicle but cannot indicate or show the location of the vehicle. It only makes the car thieves stranded.
THE SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM
Modulating Frequency Generator
L-C Tank Circuit
Career Frequency Generator (Master Oscillator)
POWER SUPPLY UNIT
Fig 1.1. The Transmitter Unit
TRF Receiver Module
Driver Stage/ Relay
Car Locking System
5-Minutes One-Shot Delay Circuit
Car Ignition System
The Receiver Unit
Figure1.2 Block Diagram of the Car Ignition Deactivation System.
This project design and implementation of radio frequency (RF) controlled car lock with 5-min ignition deactivation facilities is realized in several building blocks all combined to form one functional units.
The transmitter is a portable handheld remote control configured to radiate RF signal at frequency of 98 MHz into the atmosphere. The Receiver unit is configured in two different units, the car locking unit and the ignition deactivation unit. The car locking system contains the tuned radio frequency receiver module configured to receive the transmitters signal at a resonance frequency of 98Mhz.The second block is a transistor static switch/amplifier that amplifies the output and weak signal from block 1 and used it to trigger/clock a Flip-Flop circuit which forms the third block. The fourth and fifth blocks are electro magnetic relay and car locking system. The relay cuts off the car locking system when it is energized. The other unit of the system is configured with four push-and-hold switches which represents the car doors. These switches are used to trigger a 5-min delay configured with Ne555 timer in monostable mode. The third block of this unit is the transistor static switches and electromagnetic relay which deactivates the ignition system after 5-min of opening any of the doors and closing it.
1.6. Project Report Organisation
This project report is presented in five chapters to appropriately illustrate the procedure/sequence used in its implementation. Chapter one deals on the introduction of the system, objectives and its relevance. Chapter two is basically the literature review. Chapter three x-rays the system design and analysis which chapter four covers the implementation, testing and result.
The final chapter, Five summaries the whole work car lock with 5-min ignition deactivation system.
Chapter Three: System design and analysis which chapter four covers the implementation, testing and result.
The final chapter, Five summaries the whole work car lock with 5-min ignition deactivation system.
1.7. Definition of Terms:
2. Radio frequency (Rf) this is the rate of oscillation within the range of in the electromagnetic wave spectrum.
3. Control logic generator: this module also called the signal conditioning unit generates the logic which is needed to bias a transistor driver or to trigger/clock a resettable IC. It is realized with schmitt trigger NAND gate.
4. Inductive Kick-Back Diode: This is diode that is connected across the terminals (coil) of an inductive load to prevent inductive kick-back when it is switched off/de-energized.
5. Resonance: This is a phenomenon which occurs when a vibrating body set another body into vibration until both vibrate at the same natural frequency. It is the principle behind Rf communication.
6. Frequency modulation: This is a technique of signal transmission in which the frequency of the signal is varied while the amplitude and phase remain constant.
7. One shot delay: This is multivibrator circuit configure monostable mode which gives out a one-shot pulse when it is triggered. It is used to delay proceeding operation.