Impact Of Land Use On Surface Water Quality A Case Of Wondo Genet Area

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The watershed in Wondo Genet area are the focal point for a variety of differentrnland uses including forest activities, urban development, irrigation agriculture,rnlivestock grazing, recreational activities and wetland Most previous land usernstudies have focused on multiple watersheds at regional scale. More localizedrninformation is needed on a single representative stream to provide importantrnwater quality information that can be extrapolated to other similar watersheds inrnthe region. This study focuses on local watershed called "Wosha riverrncatchment's" and looked at the impact of various land uses on surface waterrnquality along the river. The study area was divided into four discrete lan.d usagernzones based on the dominant land use. Water samples were colleted during wetrnand dry season from the lower boundary . of each usage zones to look forrntemporary and seasonal variation on selected water quality parameters.rnRegulatory guidelines and / or standards were used to assess use oriented waterrnquality status of river, lake and spring waters. The impact of land use activitiesrnon water quality is evident from the presence of localized high concentration ofrnsome nutrients and coliform bacteria. The average concentration of nitrate andrnphosphate increases from 0.3mg/ 1 and 0.6 mg/l in forested area to arnconcentration of 20 mg/ l and 0.96 mg/ l of nitrate and phosphate respectively inrnagricultural lands. The total coliform concentration increases fron! 90rncoliform/ 1 OOml in forested area to a level which is too numerous to count (TNTC)rnin agricultural and urban areas. Temperature, turbidity, nitrates, pH andrnphosphates showed significant seasonal differences in wet and dry periods,rnwhile the other parameters did not show significance differences. The averagernconcentration of nitrate and phosphate changes from dry season concentration ofrnSmg/ l and 0.43mg/ 1 to a wet season concentration of 10.93mg/ 1 and 1.Smg/ 1rnrespectively. The concentration of most trace elements was below the detectablernlimit in all usage zones.

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Impact Of Land Use On Surface Water Quality  A Case Of Wondo Genet Area