RURAL MANAGEMENT AS A STRATEGY FOR REDUCING RURAL – URBAN MIGRATION IN NIGERIA
Rural resources have a lot of potential which needed to be brought into full production as to uplift the values. These values can only be achieved when other resources like times, money, infrastructure, expertise an d the like are applied. The high demand of products is expected to propel the application of the said resources into maximum production which in turn increase the value of rural environment, confirming value to be a function of profit.
Unfortunately, government policies and programmes in the year past failed to reflect the need for balance rural and urban development. Thus, most development polices and programmes are urban – oriented. As a result rural dwellers have been subjected to poverty, unemployment, poor infrastructure, economic and social defects. Incidentally, rural dweller a stick to migration.
Therefore, this study on Rural Development. As a strategy, for reducing Rural – Urban Migrations in Nigeria, a case study of Ishiehi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, seek to identify rural development programmes/projects extent of rural urban migration and factors responsible for rural urban migration in the study area.
From the findings based on the analysed data, integrated Rural Development Strategy has been pin-pointed and recommended as a feasible and viable measure toward minimizing the rate of rural – urban migration in Nigeria at large and Ishielu in particular.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study
1.3 Background and Need for the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.6.1 Delimitation Scope
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Theoretical Foundation of the Study
1.8.1 Economics Growth Model and Rural Development Dual Economic Model.
1.8.2 Diffusion Model of Rural Development
1.8.3 Basic Resource Theory.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Meaning of Development
2.2 Rural Area and Rural Development
2.3 Classification of Rural Development Programme
2.3.1 Local (Community Programmes)
2.3.2 Government Programmes
2.4.1 Rural Development Strategies
2.4.2 The Basic Weeds Approach
2.4.3 The Infrastructural Approach
2.4.4 The Minimum package or Sub-Sectorial Approach
2.4.5 The New Technology Approach
2.4.6 The Functional or Sectorial Programme Approach
2.4.7 The Industrialization Approach
2.4.8 The Community Approach
2.4.9 The Integrated Approach
2.5 General Concept of Integrated Rural Development in Nigeria
2.6 Urban Growth and Migration
3.0 Research Designs and Methodology
3.1 Re-Statement of the Problem
3.2 Design and Methodology of the Study
3.3 Sampling Technique and Procedure Employed
3.4 Description of the Study Area
3.5 Method of Data Collection
3.5.1 Primary data Collection
3.5.2 Secondary Data Collection
3.6 Description of Data Collection
3.7 Description of Statistics for Analysing Data
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Personal Characteristics of the Respondents
4.2 Identification of Rural Development Programmes in the study Area.
4.3 Reasons or factors Responsible for Rural Urban Migration
4.4 Extent of Rural – Urban Migration in the Study Area
4.5 Testing of Hypothesis
5.0 Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion
5.2.1 Strategy’s Institutional Framework
5.2.2 Programmes Under the Strategy
5.2.3 Policies, Principles and Philosophy in the Strategy
5.2.4 Funding the Strategy
5.2.5 Suggestion for further study
Nigeria, a country in West African sub-region is blessed with abundant natural and material resources. With an estimated current population of over nine hundred and twenty four thousand (924, 000) square kilometers, Nigeria is easily the most populous in African and one of the largest in terms of geographical area. About seventy percent of the population depend on agricultural activities for their livelihood and live in rural communities.
Currently, over forty million out of the total population of over one hundred million people live in urban area. Therefore, the rural area within the geographic entity of the country is whereby majority of the population is found.
Some of the government officials fear of the belief held that urban areas constitute the development potential of the state, the rural areas, have been neglected in terms of development opportunities.
Following the moribund attitudes that existed in the rural areas the rural dwellers are attracted to the urban areas to benefits from better paying jobs qualitative supply of basic amenities, highs level of commercial, recreational and industrial activities. Arising from the rapid. Urban population growth and physical expansion are very serious physical planning problem such as poor physical layout like Ajegunle, Gwagwa,, Abakpa in Lagos, Abuja, Abakalike and Enugu respectively. Also in the list include mass transit problem inadequate supply of housing, water and other basic social services.
Hence, it is expected that various governments policy maker rural dwellers, planning team and the general public should involve in harnessing the capture and build in preference of the rural dwellers at anytime.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally in Nigerian, there have been uneven development and glaring inequality of opportunities between the rural and urban area. In spite of the fact that the majority of Nigerian are rural dwellers rural areas still have little or no opportunities for education and employment. No doubt rural areas in Nigeria are characterized by poverty, malnutrition, poor communication, illiteracy unproductive agriculture with the use of traditional implement, general low per capital income. Also includes lack of health facilities, public electricity, borne whole water and motorable roads which hinder them from evacuating foods and industrial raw materials.
Rural development proper should module all and sundry, unfortunately lack of sufficient fund for progamme execution, high cost of building materials and labour, failure to incorporate people affected in planning and in more serious note, the rural dwellers level of understanding is too low that instead of attracting government attention by initiating a project, they expect the government to do every thing for them which is impossible. All these factors problems act as a push against the rural dwellers in the study area to the urban areas, where they can enjoy social amenities and infrastructure such as water supply, electricity, health facilities, tarred roads, and abundant job opportunities. At the end of this study, we shall know how the rural development can be effective means (strategy) for reducing rural – urban migration in Nigerian generally and Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State particular. The preceding sentence, therefore, form the focus of this research.