Abstract Training And Development Is A Necessary Factor In The Attainment Of Organizational Objectives Of Any Organization. In Every Organization Exists Some Form Training And Development Programme. The Manpower Has To Be Tr

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Training and development is a necessary factor in the attainment of organizational objectives of any organization. In every organization exists some form training and development programme. The manpower has to be trained and developed in terms of quality and quantity so that they can effectivey and efficiently control the commanding height of our profit. The business organization has risen to this by providing the national Council for management education and training and the centre for management development schemes. It is important because it directs training and development towards organization need and aspiration. In Nigeria Breweries Plc there is already a formalized system of staff training and development in the organization to help it attain it objectives. This project paper is set for highlight the problems of staff training and development in the company and also to offer solutions to these problems.


Title page         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i

Certification     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii

Dedication       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iii

Acknowledgement    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iv

Abstract   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       v

Table of contents     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi



1.0      Introduction     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       1

1.1      Background of the study -       -       -       -       1

1.2      Statement of the problem        -       -       -       -       3

1.3      Objective of the study      -       -       -       -       -       5

1.4      Research questions -       -       -       -       -       -       6

1.5      Significance of the study -       -       -       -       -       7

1.6      Scope of the study   -       -       -       -       -       -       8

1.7      Limitation of the study     -       -       -       -       -       8

1.8      Definition of terms   -       -       -       -       -       -       9

1.9      Chapter Reference   -       -       -       -       -       -       11



2.0      Literature Review     -       -       -       -       -       -       12

2.1   Source     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       12

2.2   Objective of training and development     -       -       16

2.3   Reasons for training and development in an organization       -       -       -        -       -       -       -       17

2.4   Determination of training needs      -       -       -       19

2.5   Allocation of resources for training and development purpose-       -       -        -       -       -       -       -       23

2.6   Training principles and techniques         -       -       25

2.7   Problems of training and development programme 29

2.8   Ways of improving the problems of training and development programmes         -       -       -       -      30



3.0      Research Design and Methodology -       -       -       32

3.1      Sources of Data       -       -       -       -       -       -       32

3.2      Area of study    --     -       -       -       -       -       -       34

3.3      Sample size determination       -       -       -       -       34

3.4      Instrument for data collection -       -       -       36

3.5      Validity of the Instrument        -       -       -       -       36

3.6      Reliability of the Instrument    -       -       -       -       36   


4.0      Data Presentation and Analysis       -       -       -       37

4.1      Testing of hypothesis       -       -       -       -       -       40


5.0      Discussion and Recommendation   -       -       -       56

5.1      Discus of Result finding   -       -       -       -       -       56

5.2      Conclusion      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       62

5.3      Recommendation     -       -       -       -       -       -       63

References       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       65




Business organization in Nigeria has been faced with the challenges of providing adequate effective manpower needs, development and management of the economic resources.

The liability of the country to make provision for the require manpower has resulted in the inefficient and underutilization of her abundant economic resources.

Haires speaking on the general poor development of Nigerian workers said that he is under used, under employment, frustrated and prevented from bringing his talents to bear on the well being of his employer, and the nation at large. The principal culput is not the worker but the leaders.

The above analysis, shows that the country is blessed with abundant human resources with which it can develop, but they lack effective utilization of these potentials for the transformation of their economic resources, essentially because of the inadequate planning and development of human resources. Training and development of manpower gives face lift towards venture.

Training and development is an important aspect in an organization from which both the employer and employee stand to gain a lot. As soon as employees are recruited and inducted, they must be trained and develop to fit perfectly into their jobs for which they have been employed and this can best be through the introduction of training and development programmes, the areas to direct our minds to when establishing such programmes are how can training  and development programmes be directed to meet the challenging needs  of the company economy and how can the increase productivity and the rate of industrialization of our environment.



All organization be it political, religion or business have pure determined goals and objectives which they intend to achieve and these are ends towards which organizational activities are geared organization strict to achieve their respective goals and purpose since this is used as a yardstick or standard for assessing their success or failure.

The major determinant of any organization in the presence of capable men and women with the right skill and knowledge to combine organizational goals and objectives.

The manager and employee must be well equipped in order to carryout these assignments and skill can only be imported through the training and development of the employees.

In Nigeria, there is shortage of skilled labour and the major challenge of the Nigeria management is to help develop the skills of the nations existing staff and at the same time device ways and means of utilizing the surplus staff.

Both the public and private sectors are besieged with the problem of inefficiency low capacity and other symptoms of poor jobs performance. These problems can be avoided and solved by early identification of adequate trained and development techniques and programmes fro different level of managers supervisions and other employees.

The researcher work is directed towards the problem of staff training and development programmes of Business Organization (Nigeria Breweries Plc), with a view of identifying the methods, problem areas and suggestions on ways of achieving a greater success in her staff training and development efforts.


Most modern organization have some training and development for its employees. Lack of it represents a serious set back in productivity but training and development is not without its own problems so the objectives of this usually is to.

a)           Determine the training and development set up of Nigeria Breweries Plc.

b)          Determine the problems encountered in their training and development programmes

c)           Offer effective and efficient solution to these problems.

d)          Identify staff training and development needs in Nigerian Breweries Plc.

e)           Design staff training and development programmes that will be suitable to the staff needs of the organization.

f)            Determine cost benefit of the training and development programmes.

g)           Identify the company’s selection process for training workers.



In carrying out this project, the following questions were asked, they include.

a)           What are the set up of training and development in Nigeria Breweries?

b)          What are the problems encountered by Nigerian breweries when carrying out training and development programmes?

c)           How does staff training and development needs are identified in Nigeria Breweries?

d)          Is the design of staff training and  development programmes suitable to the staff needs of the economy?

e)           What is the cost benefit of training and development programmes?

f)            How fair is the company’s selection process for training workers?

g)           Has training programmes created some positive changes in ultimate performance and productivity of the trainees?



The significance of the study lies on the fact that it will be of immense benefit as a reference tool to the organizers and executors of staff training and development programmes in Business Organization.

It will also be of benefit to the researcher who will be conversant with what training and development entails and the problems involves, there by prepare him/her for the outside world. It will be of immense  benefit to management of Organization.



This scope is restricted to Nigeria Breweries Plc Enugu. The study is designed to look into staff training and development in Business Organization.



The limitation of the study include time constraints and inadequate findings.

a)           TIME: Time has always been a scarce resources for students researcher and of the factors necessary for research is time. The time available for this research was too short. The researcher had not only spent must time in search for company that will permit him/her to understudy their establishment. He was also confronted with other academic obligation like regular class attendance, writing of assignment, quizzes, term paper and preparation for example.

b)            Inadequate funding: Another limiting factor to this study was finance. This research requires much fund. The research had to meet other in evitable financial obligations required to him in course of his academic world. Inadequate fund therefore affected the scope adeptness and smooth execution of this research work. 



Development:It is an Organization related learning experience preparing the individual for new future jobs and performance base on possible future directions for the organizations.

Training: Is a job related learning experience provided in order to improve performance on the current job.

Management: Is purpose use of resources of man, minutes, materials, machines, method and money. The key resources is man management thus is the effort of other people.














Agbo G.O (2001) The Practice of Management, Enugu Iyke ventures Production.

Nwachukwu, C.C 91991) Theory and Practice of Management Enugu Africa Fep Rub.




          This research has investigated in to a comparative analysis of rental variation in residential and commercial properties in Ogui New Layout, Enugu Nigeria.

The researcher used both questionnaires, interview and self observation as method of data collection. The data was collected among some landlords, Estate agents of the selected properties.

The data collected was analyzed based on interpretation and conclusion made.

Chapter one treats the introduction of the project work, chapter two Literature Review, chapter three. Research methodology, chapter four data presentation, analysis and interpretation and chapter five finding, recommendation and conclusion.

Finally, rental variation in commercial and residential properties have been discovered to be influenced by certain factors affecting the rents passing on these properties.


Table of contents


Title Page






Table of Contents



1.0            Introduction

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2            Statement of Problem

1.3            Purpose of the Study

1.4            Significance of Study

1.5            Scope of the Study

1.6            Limitation of the Study


2.0            Literature Review

2.1     Property

21.1        What is Property?

21.2        Meaning of Property for Appraisal

21.3        Nature of Property

21.4        Classification Property for Valuation Purpose

21.5        Economic of Rent

21.6        Theory of Rent

21.7       Concepts of Rent

21.8       Determinate of Rent

2.2            Commercial Properties and Rents

2.3            Residential Properties

2.4            Definition of Relevant Terms


3.0            Research Methodology

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2            Primary Data

3.3            Secondary Data

3.4            Study Population and Sample



4.0            Data Presentation, Analysis and Introduction

4.1     Presentation of Basic Data

4.2            Presentation and Analysis of Data

4.3            The Average Rent in N/M2 on Commercial and Residential Properties



5.0            Findings, Recommendation and Conclusions

5.1     Finding

5.2            Recommendation

5.3            Conclusion



List of Figures/Tables




1.0            INTRODUCTION


          Shelter is a basic necessity in life. An individual can satisfy this need by either occupying his own (owner’s occupier) property or renting another persons property. In our traditional society, the need for shelter is mainly met through the first alternative, that is owner occupation. With the emergency of urban centres, the situation has changed. Many people are no longer about to own property because of the difficulty in the acquisition of land and the high cost of building construction. Therefore, they are left with the alternative of renting other people’s properties in order to satisfy their need for shelter. Consequently two classes of urban resident have emerged, the landlord and the tenant under this arrangement the tenant pays to the landlord a certain amount of money in consideration for his use of the landlord’s house. This amount is popularly known as rent.

During the civil war the Nigeria that is 1966 to 1970 many landed properties in the urban areas of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria, including Enugu, were destroyed. Consequently, there was a sharp decline in the supply of landed properties after the war. Furthermore, the post – civil war period witnessed an unprecedented number of the rural population trooping into the urban centres due to the conspicuous prosperity brought about in the urban area by the oil boom. This resulted to high demand for the existing limited supply of landed properties. Consequent upon these, rent for landed properties increased considerably.

This trend has continued with the effect that “the average worker is paying between 30% to 40% of his salary as rent ” (Oshadiya, 1985). Thus the increase in rents on the properties has led to the variation of rent on properties.

In urban area due to location advantage (for example prime location) which some properties offer above others for commercial and residential uses, rent tend to very on account of the type of use which a property can offer.



Location of economic properties has been a difficult concept to understand. Although the primary objective of commercial properties is the derivation of financial gains, while that of residential properties is for habitation, shelter and comfort, the demand for land is a refection of the profitability or utility derivable from it use. The greater the benefit to be obtained from a particular use, the higher the rent that the user will be willing to pay for it.

There appear to be wide ranging differences in the levels of rent passing on residential and commercial properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.

This research is seeking among other things to find out the causes of rental variation in commercial and residential properties in Nigeria, Ogui New Layout as a case study.



The main purpose of this research is to examine the reasons for rental variation in commercial and residential properties with a view to provide tool to be used in catching issues related to rent on these properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.

In order to achieve the standard goals, the following objective are to be undertaken;

i)                   To identify the current level of rents for commercial and residential properties in the study area.

ii)                To ascertain and examine the factors influencing the rents being commanded by these properties.

iii)              To specify the implications of rental variation on decisions to acquire those properties.

iv)              To determine the trend in rental values for residential and commercial properties in the study area.



The finding of this study will be of benefit to the following;

Firstly, tenants who are charged rents based on different reasons, especially when the properties are of the same nature (physically). This will again enable the investors not only to understand how occupier thinks, but also why and the things they consider before acquiring properties for certain uses. For example residential and commercial use.

Secondly, the generality of the public can now understand the reason why the rents being commanded by these properties have to differ.

Lastly, this research work will help to determine the factors influencing, commercial and residential properties which is an essential pre-requisite to successful development as well as stimulating interest in the students to carryout out further research on the topic.



The study covers a period of three years (2002 to 2004) and it is restricted to selected properties (Residential and commercial) comprising blocks of flat and tenements in Ogui New Layout, Enugu.



Expectedly, this work met with some hindrances during the stage of data collection. The issue of rent passing on a property (residential or commercial) is usually regarded as classified information, which is not easily disclosed to people particularly researchers. This was largely suspected to be the reason why some Estate surveyors, property owners, tenants, Estate firms, property companies and even Estate agents who where approached through oral interviews, discussions and visitations found it rather difficult to reveal essential information despite every explanation that the exercise is strictly for academic purposes, a good number of them, still nursed the fear that it may be for property rating and taxation purposes. There was also the problem of logistics occasioned by the society. The researcher worked with a very light  budget throughout the period of study as the frequent and repeated visits to relevant persons and offices entailed quite some money. Moreover, also recall that some of the interview respondents were not co-operative as they kept on playing to the gallery as a means of avoiding supplying the required information. On a general not however, the researcher ensured that these bottle – necks never affected the findings of this study since the success far outweighed the hindrances as enumerated.















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Abstract  Training And Development Is A Necessary Factor In The Attainment Of Organizational Objectives Of Any Organization. In Every Organization Exists Some Form Training And Development Programme. The Manpower Has To Be Tr