Formulation Of Nutritionally Enriched Macaroni With Blends Of Durum Wheat Tef And Chickpea

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Pasta is unleavened extruded product which is made from dough of durum wheat semolina orrnblends of durum wheat with rice, tef, sorghum, chickpea, lupin etc. In Ethiopia, pasta productsrnmade commonly with only semolina, which has lower quality in some important nutrients suchrnas protein, fiber and minerals as compared with other cereals and legumes. Also, semolina is inrnshortage of supply due to low durum wheat local production. Despite these facts, there is stillrnlack of research on formulating pasta products from composite flour with other cereals andrnlegumes of higher nutritional quality and production rate. Therefore, in this study the usage oftefrnand chickpea flours to enrich pasta products (specifically macaroni) was investigated by usingrnResponse Surface Methodology (RSM). Macaroni was prepared using composite flours of durumrnwheat semolina (60-100%), tef (0-40%) and chickpea (0-15%) using D-optimal mixture design.rnFor cold press extrusion, pilot scale single screw food extruder was used. Then, first orderrnpolynomial model was applied to describe the influence of semolina, tef and chickpea proportionrnon nutritional composition, cooking quality, textural analysis and sensory evaluation of macaronirnproducts. Throughout the study durum wheat macaroni (100% semolina) was used as a control.rnResults indicate that an increasing proportion of tef and chickpea flour significantly improvedrnthe nutritional composition of the blend macaroni (protein, fiber, fat, iron and zinc content).rnIncorporation of chickpea flour only up to 15% with semolina produced a macaroni comparablernsensory quality with semolina macaroni. Similarly, though the addition of tef flour considerablyrnincreased the cooking loss and it also considerably improved the water absorption capacity/indexrnof the macaroni. Protein, fiber, filmness, stickiness, cooking loss and overall acceptability wererndeem as common optimum parameter for macaroni formula. The formula containing 73.46%rnsemolina, 11.55% tef and 15% chickpea was selected as the best formulation to produce arnnutrient rich macaroni product with desirable cooking, texture and sensory quality.rnUnderstanding the impact of the blending ratio to improve macaroni nutritional quality wasrnconsidered useful to develop pasta products.rnKeywords: Macaroni, tef, chickpea, cooking and textural property, RSM, D-optimal design

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Formulation Of Nutritionally Enriched Macaroni With Blends Of Durum Wheat Tef And Chickpea

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