The study investigated the influence of gender, location and duration of street hawking on nutritional status and academic performance of junior secondary school students in Delta State, Nigeria. To guide the study, thirteen research questions were raised and answered and nine hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 alpha level.
A descriptive survey and ex-post facto research designs were employed for the study using one hundred and fifty-five (155) JSS student hawkers to obtain data on the influence of street hawking on nutritional status and academic performance. Proportionate sample of 50% of the identified respondents comprising 50 student hawkers from Delta Central, 60 student hawkers from Delta South and 45 student hawkers from Delta North. The instruments for data collection were questionnaire, anthropometric measure of body mass index (BMI) and JSS two promotion examination results in English and Mathematics (academic performance). The questionnaire was titled “Influence of Gender, Location and Duration of Street Hawking on Nutritional Status and Academic Performance Questionnaire (IGLDSHNSAPQ)”. The questionnaire contained four sections A, B, C, & D. Section A elicited background information of respondents such as name of students, gender, LGA, location and hawking status with two points scale of yes and no. Section B was on food frequency. Section C focused on food consumption pattern. Section D focused on 24 hours dietary recall. The second instrument was an anthropometric assessment of Body Mass Index (BMI) using (Weight for Height) rating. The recording for this appeared as Section E in the questionnaire. The third instrument was JSS two promotion examination results in English and Mathematics which focused on academic performance of the respondents. Frequency count, percentage, BMI ratings, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions. Independent t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha levels.
Results of the study revealed that there is no significant difference in the duration of time male and female student hawkers spend hawking and that there is a significant difference between male and female JSS student hawkers in their nutritional status in junior secondary schools in Delta State. A significant difference existed between urban and rural JSS student hawkers in their nutritional status. The study equally revealed that there was no significant difference between male and female JSS student hawkers in their academic performance in English in junior secondary schools in Delta State. Also, there was no significant difference between male and female JSS student hawkers in their academic performance in Mathematics in junior secondary schools in Delta State. Furthermore, the study showed that there was no significant difference between urban and rural JSS student hawkers in their academic performance in English in junior secondary schools in Delta State and there was no significant difference between urban and rural JSS student hawkers in their academic performance in Mathematics in junior secondary schools in Delta State. Based on these findings, it was recommended that nutritional education should be intensified for the parents of student hawkers to be aware of the nutritional requirements of their child and that government should provide assistance in form of scholarship for children from poor homes in order to discourage street hawking.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 8
Research Questions 10
Purpose of the Study 12
Significance of the Study 13
Scope and Delimitation of the Study 15
Operational Definition of Terms 16
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Theoretical Framework 18
Conceptual Framework 21
Concept of Street Hawking 21
Concept of Nutritional Status 42
Concept of Academic Performance 85
Review of Related Empirical Studies 92
Appraisal of Reviewed Literature 100
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Design of the Study 102
Population of the Study 103
Sample and Sampling Technique 103
Validity of the Instrument 108
Reliability of the Instrument 109
Method of Data Collection 109
Method of Data Analysis 110
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Presentation of Results 112
Discussion of Findings 141
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONSAND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of the Study 151
Contribution to Knowledge 155
Suggestions for Further Research 155
Background to the Study
Street hawking is a term used to describe the process of selling goods by young and elderly persons who walk from street to street, thereby bringing the seller closer to the consumer. Street hawking is a marketing strategy characterized by many buyers and sellers usually offering very small quantities for sale at a time (Olukosi, Isitor & Ode, 2005). Various streets and roadsides in cities, towns and suburbs in different parts of Nigeria are increasingly becoming choked as a result of the activities of street hawkers trying to get meagre incomes from selling their wares irrespective of their age, the dangers involved and the health issues among others. In Delta State young school-aged children struggle to make little income from hawking various items along the streets and roadside on daily basis. In fact, in various towns and villages in Delta State there are huge number of school-aged children who help their parents and guardians to earn their living either fully or partly through hawking of different range of items on the streets, along the road and other public places.
It is believed that children engage in street hawking with the aim of earning a livelihood for themselves and/or for their parents or guardians. Although, doing menial jobs and cleaning the house before going to school and after school are generally aimed at training the children to make them realize that they can and should contribute their own quota to the general upkeep of their families, and of course to prepare them for adult life.However, due to the poor economic situation in the country many poor parents are forced by circumstances to saddle the young ones with activities like hawking of wares. In effect children engage in street hawking as a result of factors such as socio-economic status, the profit expected, influence by others and the desire to make a living for one’s self and immediate family. Other factors that may push children into street hawking are the household living condition, spousal desertion and desperation towards alternative jobs.
In spite of the economic benefits of street hawking by young school children, they may develop some problems such as sex networking, stealing, rape, and juvenile delinquent behaviours. Street hawking takes much of the students’ school time which may result in poor academic performance.Consequently these students may increase cases of drop out among young school children. Hawking is often carried out at the expense of schooling and other early life activities such as proper socialization. These may constitute a threat to the continued survival of the society. Such uneducated school – aged children may not reach their potentials as future leaders. In Nigeria, despite the efforts made by government through the Child Right Act in combating street hawking, many school – aged children are still found roaming and hawking various goods around busy roads, junctions, markets and public places.
Undoubtedly, exposure to street hawking can also take a toll on the nutrition of these street hawkers. The feeding pattern of school – age children that hawk could be very complex as they attempt to develop personal independence and establish their own scale of values. Often such children may be attracted to high nutrient dense foods readily available as they hawk their wares. Characteristically, children growth pattern require increased levels of nutrient requirements and food intake. Food habits of children involved in street hawking may primarily be influenced by daily food availability rather than nutrient needs. The food pattern that supports normal growth, development and weight of such children who hawk in the streets may not be secured. Healthy feeding habits are essential for students to achieve their full academic potential, physical and mental growth, lifelong health and well-being. Poor nutrition has been shown to be an underlying cause of poor school attendance, cognitive retention and achievement in education among children of school age (UNICEF, 2004). If a student has not eaten properly, he/she may not be expected to maintain focus in the classroom. The importance of proper feeding habits for school children may account for government’s introduction of the school feeding programme in Nigerian schools in September, 2005 (Aliyu, 2006). The programme was perceived to be a strong means of improving school enrolment, attendance, cognitive retention, school completion and learning achievements among students. This was also to assist with the realization of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) objectives and attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 2004). However, the school feeding programme has not been followed up in the south-south of Nigeria.
Malnutrition may be a result of poor feeding practice, especially during the period of hawking. The most common nutritional problem among school – aged children that are involved in street hawking may be underweight and micronutrient deficiencies such as Iron, Zinc, Iodine and Vitamin A.Gunde (2003) pointed out that protein-energy malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and a sub-clinical form of Vitamin A deficiency have been reported among children involved in street hawking. Underweight and stunted growth in children is significantly higher, among children that are involved in street hawking,and among those from low income households in urban and rural schools; and thesemay have adverse effects on their performance at school(Gunde, 2003; Omwami, Neumann, & Bwibo, 2011). Malnutrition may occur as a result of poor feeding practice, especially during the period of hawking. Malnutrition has negative effect on the health of school age children and affects their capacity to succeed in school.
Nutrition is not just eating and drinking but eating adequate food for a good supply of all the key nutrients. Individual nutritional status is dependent on the interaction between food that is eaten, the state of health and the physical environment. The nutritional status of an individual to a large extent is determined by the: type and frequency of the food consumed; adequacy of food intake as it relates to the quantity of food consumed. The overall quality of the diet with respect to various macronutrients and micronutrients and energy density, and palatability of the food consumed. Although everyone knows how to eat, not everyone knows what to eat to nourish his or herself. Deciding what, when and how much to eat is a complex process that requires knowledge of food groups and factors such as food availability, taste, appetite, money and time that influence a person’s food consumption.
The nutritional status of individuals can be measured by tracking the: frequency and recall of food consumed over a given period of time; food consumption pattern or behaviour; body mass index (BMI) as related to nutritional status clarification, and through clinical assessment. Food frequency and food recall can be determined by questioning people about their diet, thereby providing useful information about adequacy of food intake. Specifically, food frequency questionnaire consist of a list of foods and a selection of options relating to the frequency (e.g. times per day, daily, weekly, monthly) of consumption of each of the food listed. The 24 hours recall is retrospective methods that require the respondents to remember in detail all the food and drink consumed during a period of time in the recent past (often the previous 24 hours). The food consumption pattern is a behavioural assessment of individual dispositions to adequacy of each food eaten.
Clinical assessment is another method of determining nutritional status of individuals. This assessment is usually based on identifying various signs and symptoms of nutrient deficiencies, and this may include assessment of skin, hair, teeth, body fat stores, wasting muscle mass, edema, skin rash, thinning as evidence of specific nutritional deficiencies. This study, however did not use the clinical method for determining nutritional status. The nutritional status of an individual can also be determined through anthropometric methods that classifies individuals into nutritional categories according to body mass index (BMI) standards or reference data. The body weight and height measurement are taken in order to obtain the body mass index (BMI kg/m2). The obtained BMI values are classified into normal, stunted, moderately stunted, severely stunted and over – nutrition based on World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) standards.
Street hawking may contribute towards academic failure, not only because these students are disadvantaged, but because their health and nutritional status may be inadequate to allow for the maximum mental development and realization of their educational potentials (WHO, 2012). Weak and hungry children, most often, fall asleep in class. A sleeping child may never know what is going on in class and this may result in very weak academic performance. Significantly, street hawking was found to negatively affect the school attendance and academic performance of children hawkers. For instance, Charles & Charles (2004) reported that Nigerian children who engaged in street hawking had lower school attendance and academic performance. According to them, the academic performance of both male and female children involved in street hawking is affected. This is because the children hawkers may lack concentration in class work due to fatigue and stress. Such children are deprived of time to attend to any assignments given in schools. Children hawkers may show poor cognitive and low academic performance particularly in verbal and achievement outcomes (Victor, 2014).Street hawkers are often involved in loitering, leaving school without permission, and staying out of classes.
It is believed that gender of children hawkers differentially be a variation in the influence nutritional status and academic performance of students. For instance, girls driven by poverty from homes, sell goods from door to door, and their parents are happy to receive money which may in certain instances be vital to the family survival (Ebigbo, 1988). The girls learn to beautify themselves daily to draw attention as they hawk their wares. According to Dada (2013) street hawkers sex distribution is within the range of 48% for male and 52% for female, thus concluding that female are more than male child hawkers.
It is important to note that the influence of street hawking on nutritional status and academic performance may not be uniform across location. Children in the urban areas are quickly caught up in the daily struggle for survival and material gain (Ebigbo, 1989). The use of children as hawkers, petty traders, beggars, car washers, bus conductors, farm hands or cattle rearers are widespread in the urban areas (Dada, 2013). The choice of JSS students for this study was informed by the fact that majority of the student hawkers are within the age range of 10 – 15 years.
This study will therefore determine the influence of gender, location and duration of street hawking on the nutritional status and academic performance of secondary school students in Delta State, Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem
The basic drive for undertaking street hawking activities is generally associated with poverty. Most children of school-age children hawk on the street to earn some income for themselves, their parents and guardians. Although, street hawking can contribute to economic growth and development of the family, yet the risks attached, seem to supersede the expected economic gains. Besides, the riskof motor accidents, rape, extortion, sexual molestation and the child’s involvement in robbery and other antisocial behaviours are well known effects.However, street hawking may also predispose school age hawkers nutritional deficiencies and low academic performance. The school-aged children involved in street hawking often seem to lack proper nutrition and good diet to provide the body with the required nutrients to meet their nutritional demands. Such children may also be disadvantaged academically possibly due to either absenteeism from school, tiredness, sleeping in class, all leading to lack of concentration and low academic performance.
Inspired to take necessary action to stem street hawking by children, State and the Federal Governments as well as non-governmental agencies have put in place a number of measures to help reduce or totally eradicate this practice. These efforts have however, largely failed, due to incessant retirement of worker, unemployment, and economic hardship in the society.These have increased the involvement of children in street hawking. Available literature on the subject matter appears to be mostly from other countries, especially South Africa where this is almost an endemic disease. The researcher’s worry therefore is that most of these school aged children in Delta State involved in street hawking may be perpetual late comers to school. Most of them absent themselves from school especially on market days. They may not eat before going to school and such children may always be found sleeping in the classroom; they may lose concentration and may not have time to carry out their class assignment. Therefore, this study was carried out to establish the influence of gender, location and duration of street hawking on the nutritional status and academic performance of junior secondary school students who are street hawkers in Delta State.
The following research questions guided the study:
The following hypotheses were formulated for the study at 0.05 alpha level
H01. There is no significant difference in the duration of time male and female JSS student hawkers spend hawking.
H02. There is no significant difference in the body mass index of male and female JSS student hawkers in Delta State.
H03. There is no significant difference in the food consumption pattern between male and female student hawkers inDelta State.
H04. There is no significant difference in the body mass index of urban and rural JSS student hawkers in Delta State
H05. There is no significant difference in the food consumption pattern between urban and rural student hawkers inDelta State.
H06. There is no significant difference between the male and female JSS student hawkers academic performance in English
H07. There is no significant difference between the male and female JSS student hawkers academic performance in Mathematics
H08. There is no significant difference between the urban and rural JSS student hawkers academic performance in English
H09. There is no significant difference between the urban and rural JSS student hawkers academic performance in Mathematics
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of gender, location and duration of street hawking on the nutritional status and academic performance of junior secondary school students in Delta State. Specifically, this study was carried out to determine:
Significance of the Study
The findings of this studywill be significant to parents, the Ministry of Education, the Universal Basic Education Board, non-governmental organizations, Home Economics teachers, nutritionists, health officers and counsellors, especially if published in peer review journals, and discussed at conferences and workshops.
The findings of the study will be useful to parents because a level of awareness would have been created about the effect of street hawking on the feeding habits, nutritional needs and academic performance of school-aged students; since it is the responsibility of the parents to provide school-aged children with basic needs. The findings will also sensitizeparents to the need to stop saddling children with chores such as hawking during school and after school hours.
The findings of this study would be beneficial to the Ministry of Education, and Universal Basic Education Board,as it may stimulate these organizations to come to the aid of street hawkingstudents in junior secondary schools. The findings provided by this study will be of great benefit to Home Economics teachers, nutritionists, health officers and counsellors, providing them empirical data on the actual nutritional status of children that hawk in Delta State. Such empirical information could help to generate intervention programmes for educating both parents and JSS students on the need for education, as well as, on the properintervention programmes, such as the need to reintroduce the school feeding programme. By doing this, the Home Economics teachers, nutritionist, health officers and counsellors will have the opportunity to educate both parents and children on proper feeding practices. It is also considered that the findings of this study will be of immense benefit to government, non-governmental organizations and related stakeholders because it may help to provide them with further information on the subject matter relating to street hawking, nutritional status and academic performance among junior secondary school students’. This hopefully will enhance theformulation of policies on how to regulate street hawking.
The larger society stands to benefit from the findings of this study especially in serving as an instrument of enlightenment to all categories of persons, institutions and agencies about the need to protect the future of the school-aged children.Finally, the findings of this study, if publishedwill be of immense benefit to researchers and other consumers of research products. Such findings may bring about alternative solution to resolving the problems and challenges posed by school aged street hawkers.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study focused on the influence of gender, location and duration of street hawking on nutritional status and academic performance of students in junior secondary schools in Delta State.Also, public junior secondary schools in Delta State were covered by the study. Specifically, students in junior secondary school two were used for the study. The choice of junior secondary school II students was informed by the fact that most school children who are involved in street hawking are within the age bracket of 10-15 years. The study was delimited to the gender and location of junior secondary school II students in Delta State. In other words, it was delimited to male and female and urban and rural JSS2 students.