Consumer Preference On Toothpaste Brands In Enugu Metropolis

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          This study on the consumer preference for toothpaste brands in Enugu metropolis Enugu state is intended to closely understand how consumers make their brand choice.

          The objective of the study is as follows: to find out the major factors that influence consumers preference of toothpaste brands.

          To identify consumers preference for toothpaste brands.

          To determine the retail outlet preferred by consumers.

          To determine the attributes that will influence consumer to prefer one brand of toothpaste to another.

          An intensive literature review was carried out.  A convinced stratified sampling technique was used.  Questionnaire administered, out of 210 questionnaire distributed (180) completed ones were returned.

          The data from the 180 respondents were presented in tables and then analysed.  On analyzing the data, the following results were arrived at:-  it was realized that price, quality and taste which ranked 1st to 3rd are the major factors influencing consumers preference of toothpaste brands.

          It was realized that out of eight brands of toothpaste listed, 3 ranked positive to show consumers prefer them more than others.

          It was also realized that consumers prefer buying the brand of their choice in and open market followed by Kiosk, super market and lastly provision store.  And finally the major attribute consumers prefer is packaging.












Title page                                                                                i

Approval page                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                   iv

Abstract                                                                                  v

Table of contents                                                                     vii


1.0     Introduction                                                                   1

1.1            Background of the study                                               1

1.2            Statement of problem                                                    6

1.3            Objective of the study                                                    6

1.4            The significance of the study                                         7

1.5            scope of the study                                                                   7

1.6            Research question                                                          9

1.7            Definition of terms                                                         10

CHAPTER TWO                  

2.0     Review of related literature                                            12     

2.1            meaning of the sample tools used                                  12

2.2            Consumer behaviour                                                     13

2.3            External Determinant of Consumer behaviour              15

2.3.1    Cultural factors                                                              15

2.3.2    Personal factors                                                             21

2.4            Psychological factors                                                     24

2.4.1    Marketing mix programme of toothpaste                      33

2.4.2    Product strategies                                                          34

2.4.3    Price strategy                                                                 35

2.4.4    Product Availability                                                      38

2.5            Adoption process and the diffusion of innovation        40

2.5.1    Adoption categories                                                       41

2.5.2    Consumer preference                                                     43

2.5.3    Brand and customer loyalty                                          45

2.5.4    Types of Brand loyalty                                                  47

2.5.5    Brand switching by customers                                       48

2.6            Summary of the related problem                                   50

CHAPTER THREE             

3.0     Research methodology                                                   52

3.1            Research Design                                                            52

3.2            Area of the study                                                           52

3.3            Population of the study                                                 53

3.4            Sample and sapling procedure                                                54

3.5            Instrumentation                                                             54

3.6            Validation of instrument                                                55

3.7            Reliability of the instrument                                          55

3.8            Method of administration of instrument                        55

3.9            Method of data analysis                                                56

CHAPTER FOUR                

4.1            Data presentation and Result                                        57

4.2            Summary of Result                                                        62

CHAPTER FIVE                  

5.1            Discussion of Results                                                    64

5.2            Conclusion                                                                     65

5.3            Implication of the Results                                              66

5.4            Recommendation                                                           66

5.5            Suggestion for further research                                      67

5.6            Limitation of the study                                                  67

References                                                                      68

Appendices.                                                                   70






Many business firms are struggling hard to know who buys and consumes their products, where they are located, how they buy, when, from whom else they buy and why, equally, why people do not buy a particular product from certain persons, organizations, and stores inspite of all the marketing strategies applied by such firms to attract these consumers.  The center point of all the daily activities of all business organization as an individual, organization or institution who purchase and makes use of the product (goods and service) offered for sale in the business firm.  In this definition, we can understand that a consumer is one who consumers or uses the product (goods and services) offered for sale in the business firm.  In this definition, we can understand that a consumer is one who consumers or uses the product of a firm.  He may or may not be the actual buyer of the firms production who then is the consumer of that product.

The consumer has been recognized and the reasons why, how and when as well as where they buy or not buy from, the future buying decision, are now fully integrated into the daily business function of every enterprise,  this is in much recognition of the marketing concept and consumers sovereignty in recent time by many firms who comes to realise that the consumers needs are satisfied.  the consumer is now at the centre point of every business attention, as the period of fast and hard selling is giving way to the much recognition of the consumer as the king or one who does no wrong and one whose existence and need satisfaction is the major reason why many business organisations are in business in the first instance.

It is important also to note that when a manufacturer provides a product he does so in anticipation of profit.  In marketing profits are usually made through the satisfaction of the needs and wants of the ultimate consumers.  However, it is not enough to know what a buyer wants.  An inquiry should also be made to find out why the buyer wants a particular product.  In view of these facts on the obligation of the manufacturers, wholesalers and also the retailers to lean as a much as is economically feasible about the major factors that influence consumers buying behaviour.  This is an important factor in planning of all marketing activities, which among others include establishing of advertisement and selling appeals in such a manner that consumers desires, taste and  preferences can be met satisfactorily by marketing efforts.

Brand choice which implies selecting one brand over a set of possible alternatives is an area of consumer behaviour which has received considerable attention by manufacturers and markets alike.  Infact the concept of brand choice seems to be important according to parker 1979 vol 4p.4.  It can result in the difference.  According to Walter G.C (1974 pg 180), he argued that the consumer is simultaneously influenced by physiological and psychological factors have to do with the individual feelings, biases and emotions”.  He also said that some more important factors influencing a persons preference are subjective satisfaction consumer needs, fast experience, product availability and product or brand price.

Moreover, Maranyama and Manku (1975) vol. 39 p.5) said that a consumer appears to make his purchases decision among the brands in his “Evoked set”.  Thus a seller must organize his effort in such a way that his particular brand is positioned with these selection in the buyers cognitive field.

Cambell (1973, p. 243) has also defined evoked set as “The act of alternative brands of product which the buyer actually consider when making specific brand preference”.  In other words, awareness of whom customers are and how they behave or likely to behave is very essential for effective marketing and success depends upon correctly predicting consumers brand preferences.

Morden A.R.S (1991) point of view, the influence of product attribute people purchases beahviour is determined by a whole series of behavioural factors which are used to explain why buyers need and or want certain products.  The marketers must understand why people want or need a product so he can group or (segment) different people according to those reasons for purchase.

Also attributes such as price, package, design and level of awareness also influence brand preference of products.  People may also seek for the benefit that product provides rather then products themselves.  Consumers may also consider the available alternative from the vantage point of the usage context with which they experience the specific application they are considering.

In Nigeria today, the range of toothpaste products ahs continued to increase steadily.  Some of the brands we have in the market today are:

i.                   Close up

ii.                 MacLean

iii.              Aqua fresh

iv.              Holdent

v.                 Snow-white

vi.              Daily need

vii.            Colgate

viii.         Dedigent

ix.              Crest etc.

With these multiplicity of brands, coupled with the increased volume of production and availability of the product, there is the tendency for stiff completion in the market.

Also consumers are more or less confused on which brand to patronize.



1.                 To find out the major factors that influence consumers preference of toothpaste brands.

2.                 to identify consumers preference for toothpaste brands.

3.                 to determine the retail outlet preferred by consumers.

4.                 To determine the attributes that will influence consumer to prefer one brand of tooth paste to another.



1.                 To find out the major factors that influence consumers preference of toothpaste brands in Enugu metropolis.

2.                 To identify consumers preference for toothpaste brands in Enugu metropolis.

3.                 To determine the retail outlet preferred by consumers.

4.                 To determine the attributes that will influence consumers to prefer one brand of toothpaste to another.


Ho     Consumers are satisfied with a particular brand of toothpaste.

Hi      Customers are not satisfied with the qualify.

Ho     customers are satisfied with the price of toothpaste,

Hi      Customers are not satisfied with the price of toothpaste brands

Ho     Customers are not satisfies with the taste of toothpaste

Hi      Customers are not satisfied with the colour of toothpaste.



The reason why the researcher is conducting the study is not only to satisfy the academic requirement for the award of certificate but to attempt to find out the factors that influence consumers preference, Consumers brands, retail outlet and attributes that will influence consumer to prefer one brand to another and as a result increase sales or at most maintaining the market share in the light of all variety of brands and fair competition in a dynamic world.  There is  growing competitive activities, consumers education and discontents.  The average customer is aware of his right and expect value for his money.  As a result of this, the work will gather all implication of good corporate image and effective customers satisfaction as opposed to ill will and the role of customers orientation and the factors that influence the customers preference of toothpaste brands.  Other students seeking to do some work in this field of consumers preference will find this invaluable.  However, the researcher strongly believe that the study is timely now, that a lot of people is not satisfied with the brand of toothpaste they use.  And also introduction of new products in the market.  This study will help the researcher to find solution to the problem of consumers in preferring a particular brand of product and also form basis for further research of the topic.




This study is restricted to consumers which is with particular reference to consumers preference in Enugu metropolis as a case study.  The researcher also will be limited to factors that influence consumers preference of toothpaste brands which involves the price, product, attributes, packaging and image.

The researcher limited herself to Enugu metropolise using Obiagu road, Owerri road, ugbene street, river lane, Egbonnaji street, Chime Avenue and okpara Avenue.

The scope also considered preference as how it creates and affects selection in buying.



To guide this project work, for question were formulated to ensure clarity from the questionnaire.

1.                 To find the major factors that influence consumers preference of toothpaste brands.

2.                 To identify consumers preference for toothpaste brands and retail outlet preferred by consumers.

3.                 To determine the attributes that will influence consumers to prefer one brand of toothpaste to another.


1.7            DEFINITION OF TERMS

Brand name: this is that part of a product which can vocalize the utterable (Pcoker 1979, vol 4 p. 4)

Brand:  A name, term,  sign, symbol or design or a combination of them intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to identify them from those of competitors. Parker (1979 vol. 4p .4)

Consumer: individual and household that buy products for personal use.

Orice motivator: one who considers price at the time of choosing a brand.

Product: something capable of satisfying a want

Consumer preference: collective scales device to indicate relative levels of preference for available goods and services

Brand preference:  a preference or choice of a particular type of toothpaste  over others.

Evoked set:  the set of alternative brands of products which the buyer actually considers when marking brand preference.  Maranyama and manku (1975 vol. 39 p.5) Advertisement: An effort to bring to the notice of the consumers the existence of a product.



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Consumer Preference On Toothpaste Brands In Enugu Metropolis