AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION PROGRAMMES ON YOUTHS.
(A CASE STUDY OF CAMPUS CIRCUIT ON MINAJ BROADCAST INTERNATIONAL)
My interest in this work its assess the effects of Television programmes on youths. Using a Minaj Broadcast international (MBI) programme Campus Circuit” as a cash study.
Television is widely acknowledged as “a powerful medium of age? The is astounding, its visual immediacy gives its audience a feeling of participation more than any other medium.
It is necessary to find out what effects television has on youths. I want to observe the youths watching campus circuit a television prgramme, learn behaviours, norms and attitude through such television violence might influence children who have violent tendencies to act violently.
Some of the primary objectives of television in Nigeria are to foster National unity and to supplement education programmes which can be achieved through the use of films. The project for purpose of easy understanding, is divided into chapter is and consist of five chapters.
Chapter one deals with the introductory aspects of the stud, in chapter two, a review of related literature is presented, while chapter three goes ahead to outline the methodology that was adopted the data analysis and interpretation in chapter four. This thesis conclusion and recommendations for further study.
Finally, this study is delimited to youths watching television programmes are literature enough to answer the questionnaires that will follow the research.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page II
Approval page III
Abstract of contents VII
Table of Contents X
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem 10
1.3 Objectives of the study 12
1.4 Significance of the study 13
1.5 Research Questions 15
1.6 Research Hypotheses 16
1.7 Conceptual and Operational Definition 18
1.8 Assumptions 20
1.9 Limitation of the study 21
2.1 Sources of Literature 22
2.2 The review 23
2.3 Functions of Nigerian Television 25
2.4 The Influence of Television 29
2.5 Campus Circuit 35
2.6 Review of Opinions 36
2.7 Summary of Literature Review 41
3.0 Research Methodology 45
3.1 Research Design 46
3.2 Research Sample 46
3.3 Measuring Instrument 47
3.4 Sampling Technique 48
3.5 Sources of Data 49
3.6 Method of Analysis / Presentation 49
3.7 Expected results 50
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction 51
4.2 Presentation of findings 52
5.1 Summary and conclusion 79
5.2 Recommendations 81
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The birth of television in Nigeria was out of political dissection. “ The politics of Nigeria just before independence placed more emphasis on developing the regions than the caters”, Television became the innovation that was to enhance the pace of regional development “ The global history of television shows that this mass medium came into existence in the discernible in the nineteenth century. In 1956, the Federal Government dried late Obafemi Awolowo Leader of opposition in the Federal House of parliament the right to reply on air the allegations leveled against his party by the colonial government. Late Chef Awolowo had telephoned the director of Nigeria Broadcasting service (NBC) requesting the sue of the broadcast facilities to refute what he claimed was a misrepresentation of the actions group point of view in the house of representations. But rather than grant the request. The chief secretary turned down the request.
This action was highly resented by chief Awolowo who started conceiving the idea of having his own broadcasting service in the Western region from the moment.
Television broadcasting, began in Nigeria in October 1959, when government of the former Western region started the first television service in both Nigeria, and Africa the Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) in Ibadan, other Television station established included, the Eastern Nigeria broadcasting service)ENBC) - Radio / TV which was created on October 1, 1960, also Radio / Television Kaduna (RTK) in 1961.
Today, Nigeria can broad of several radio and television stations. Most of which are owned and operated by the state and Federal government with the numerous television stations in the country, it is necessary to find out what effects this system of communication has on youth.
Television is widely acknowledged as “ a powerful medium of our age “ (TV journal, 1985:3) The power of television in shaping our lives is astounding its visual immediacy gives its audience a feeling of participation more than any other medium. What youths see and Lear influence their attitudes, manners, speech and often their daily habits. Television has uniqueness in its intimacy, immoderacy and mass communication qualities. In Nigeria , its development is viewed in the height of a multiplicity of personal, social cultural and political needs.
Through children obtain much of their parents and other non media to help socialize and education them, the importance or interest in the relative impact that the media have on children (Youths), aseptically the television medium. Wibur Schramm. (1971) reacting to this, put it that
for some children, under some conditions
Some television programmes are harmful ,
For other children, under the same conditions,
It may be beneficial, while for
Most children, under most conditions,
Most television programmes are probably neither harmful nor beneficial.
Therefore, it would not be out of place to suggest that youths learn behaviours, norms, and attitudes through film and television presentations.
Televisions has served the masses in its entailment aspect. It has been a more convenient alternative to social custom of going out cinema. A point to be born n mind in any discussion of the television effect, is that it gives different physical environments, personal prejudices, group attitudes, social norms and psychological needs, the same programme can act as a positive reinforcement for one person and a negative one for another.
Television has brought us in living colour the sights and sounds of entertainment, political conversions elections, assassinations, was and debates. A group in 1969 (sponsored by the united states government) That studied television effect on children suggested that” television violence might influence children who have violent tendencies to act violently” 3 They however did not reach a definite conclusion about the effect of television violence on the majority of children.
Wilbur Scramm, an American researcher, on the way youth use television, has suggested one view point.
We are talking a needless chance with our children’s welfare by permitting them to see such a parade of violence across our picture tubes. It is a danger to which we need expose to tetanus or bacteria from unpasturised Milk 4‑ .
From the above standard schramum is trying to cautim not only parents but also producer who handle programming in television industries.
Programming for youth is one of the areas of great problems seem to arise primary from lack of knowledge about the target, the potentials of broadcast media communication theory and the objective of broadcastings.
Nevertheless, the viewers interpretation of his own experience after watching a programme may be reinterpreted when he funds the programme in which he watch discussed by friends, radio commentators and newspaper commentates. If the significance of the event is magnified, even casual viewer assumes importance.
The fact of having been there is remembered not so much because the event itself has left a impression, but because the event has been recorded by others. Although television is anew medium, that is the third medium to arrive after the inception of newspaper and radio in Nigeria it a obtained to fulfill the function of educating informing the public though cultural, economic and entertainment promotions. The Nigerian television aims it presenting the types of programmes that would help create awareness, especially the youths.
According to Akpan (1987) ‘” Television is an ubiquitous medium “5 although it is a view communication medium yet in Nigeria no one can dispute the fact hat television is the greatest theatre of the air. Television differ from host of the other theatres. The sketches of the television image requires the viewing audience to full in the picture. Consequently, the medium becomes an extension of touch for it is the sense of touch that control the interplay of the sense. The secret of television tactile power is that the video image is one of low intensity and definition and thus, unlike either the photography film, offers no detailed information about specific object but instead involves the active participation of the viewers.
The objectives of any television station is not only communicate to the target audience but also to receive favourable responses. The realization of this objective will depend primarily on the performance of the communication media, their types of progarmmes and view patronage level most on the entertainment aspects rather than informative. aspects.
In this study, I assessed the effect of television programmess on youths especially the recent invention of home video.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Campus circuit” a television programme showm on Minaj Broadcast international (MBI) 5.5.30pm anchored by Ikediobi Jude, which is basically shown in the interest of the student and youths in general.
The program on the 3rd October, 1999 with the intention of keeping students (youth) it talks on the fun life, the academic successes , the admission graduations and ceremonies.
Campus circuit highlights the ills on our campuses ,like sorting attitude of students as requested by some lecturers sexual harassment of female students, cultism examination malpractice’s gun schooling incessant strikes and a host of others.
It focuses on the profile of a given school., it also x – ray’s like on our campus and youths in general through captivating real life stories designed to educate students and lecturers.
Most often, it offers the most valuable tips or how to run successful academic activities. Again it show cases latest gossips on campus, pus other extra campus hummour and tip cracking test for your delight keeps you informed about what is going on in the fashion industry in campus.
Therefore it would d be out of place to support that youths learn behaviour, norms, and attitudes through film and television presentations.
S, campus circuit as a television programme has gone a long way in influencing the youth attitudes. Managers, speech and often their daily.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
It will be discovered that some youths that watch television programmes (home videos) no engage in armed rabbery, rape, promiscuity and other activities which may be as a result of that exposures to violent films where thy tend to imitate the behavuour of the characters.
One of the primary motives of television is to foster national programmes which influenced some youths to appreciate stars who include in anti – social activities and maintenance of peace hereby causing problem in our immediate environment and nation.
Very often the critics suspect that parents uplect of the youths are responsible for their aggressive behavuours rather than violent television programmes This of course, has to be looked into because before the advert of television, youths used to be under the influenced and the dance of their parents so they obtain much of their information from them.
Whenever television is used it affects the lives of the people in definite ways. This could be positively like the areas of knowledge and civil acquisition of relatively which is a cue to anti – social activities. As can be seen in Neustein;s book, some you this exposed to television have a way of stimulating them to copy certain practices and actions they see on the tube. They will even try to see if it work at home or else where in the neighborhood. So, the values of television can make an impact if they touch idea or value for which the viewer is emotionally ready.
Therefor in this research study, efforts have been made to assess the extent television programmes especially a particular progreamme on MBI Campus Circuit affect the behaviour of you this in our environment.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
It is necessary to find out what effects television has on youths. I ant to observe whether the youth watching television programme learn behaviours, norms and attitudes through film and televised presentations.
Again, to assesses whether television violence might influence youths who have violent tendencies to act violently.
Also, to know how far campus circuit a popular programme on MINAj Broadcast International (MBI) anchored by Jude, at about 5.30pm every Thursday, have affected youths watching it because the programme is concentrated on youths on campus.
Some of the primary objectives of television in Nigeria are to foster National unity and to supplement education programmes which can be achieved the use of films.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The television as a medium of communication has effect on youths, some of the effects are positive while some are negative and their behaviour depend on he type of programme that they were exposed to.
Television broadcast exposed both foreign and local programmes in their areas of operation view of the criticisms on the limited time slot for local programmes and predominance of foreign programmes on our television stations which leads to certain effects of television programmes.
The national propensity for parents, education’s, and some organization to protect children and youths from the hazards of media dysfunctions has mobilized forces to questions critically what youths precisely learn when they watch such violent programmes. This study will help to know how various programmes on television influence the behaviour and life styles of youth from how best to model the programmes to meet social norms or patters of bahaviour and to reduce most of the violent propgrammes that appears on our screen especially from our home movies.
This researcher does not intend to influence negatively the goals and objectives of television rather to assess television effects whether positive or negative and provide possible solutions for the improvement in television programmes.
1.5 RESEARCHER QUESTIONS
(1) Is there any correlation between youths engagement in armed robbery, promiscuity and other atrocities as a result of exposure to violent films ?
(2) Are television stars who indulge in anti – social activities, like crime violence, murder, drug abuse more appreciated than those who participate in educational activities and maintenance of peace ?
(3) Are parents neglect of the youths activities responsible for their aggressive behaviours rather than violent television programmes ?
(4) Has television viewing positive or negative effect on the life style of youths ?
H1: Youths are mostly moved by certain exposures whether negative or positive so, it is a danger to which we need not expose our children (youth) anymore to some violent films because it affects their lives negatively which can move them to engage in armed robbery, promiscuity and other atrocities.
H0: There is no correlation between youths engagement in armed robbery, promiscuity and other atrocities as a result of exposure to violent films, youths so much like violent films because it exposes them to some current weapon’s invoke and some defensive tactises.
H2: Television stars who participate in educational activities and maintenance of peace are more appreciated because they don’t expose youths to violent films that can affect their behaviours negatively rather than impacting some knowledge in them that will help in building their way of life.
H0: Television stars who indulge in anti –social activities like crime, violence murder etc, are more appreciated because, they go along way in exposing some “ills in the society which youths and every viewer should be mindful of.
H3: Some parents neglect certain activities which their children indulge in, consciousness of some parents towards some activities of their children helps in correcting some with violent tendencies but some parents facts that their children are grown –pus and allow the youth negatively.
H0: Parents neglect of the youths activities are not responsible for their aggressive behaviours, they have freedom to some extent, so they should be allowed to see the negative and positive aspect of life and decide on one to choose.
H4: Willbur Schramn (1971) in reacting to the effect of television programmes said that television programems to some children (Youths) under some condition are harmful while to some under same condition are beneficial, so television viewing has both negative and positive effect , it all depends on the interpretation.
H0: Youths so much Cherish violent films more than educational films so it use to have negative effect n their life style.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
EFFECTS:This is the impression born on the mind of the youth due to their viewer ship of television programmes.
YOUTH: The period between being a child and being fully grown which is always the most active period of every human being.
TELEVISION: This is the audio – visual electronic medium used to transmit programmes by bribing to us the scene as it happens or as it is recorded.
VIOLENCE: This is an act of attacking some one or words which are intended to hurt people extreme force.
VIEWERS: Persons who watch television programmes.
PROGRAMMING: This is a list of items, events for a concert, or to be broadcast for radio or television or sports meetings.
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
EFFECTS:This means the result of an outcome of an action.
YOUTHS:The state or time of being young, having the qualities and appearance of young people.
TELEVISION: This is the process of transmitting a view of events, plays and while these are taking place or from films or tapes on which records have been made.
VIOLENCE: This is any physical or psychological injury, hurt or death addressed to living things.
VIEWERS: Person who view or watch the broadcast media be it television or cinema.
PROGRAMMING corded collection of information an electronic computer or gadget.
Television as a medium of communication has affect on youths, some of the effects are positive while some are negative and their behaviour depend on the type of programmes that they were exposed to.
Television broadcast consists both foreign and local programmes in their areas of operation view of the criticisms in the limited time slot for local programmes on our television stations which leads to certain effects on the audience, we set out to see the effect of television programmes.
The essence of this study is to find out those negative impact and give certain corrections to youths and remind the media their primary objectives which they are deviating from.
I strongly believe that this study will go along way in correcting some ills in our contemporary society, because some violent films or programmes have on them, and also to remind the media that many people especially youths, their conception of reality is observed or distorted mostly by the media.
1.9 LIMITATION AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Research entails careful and objective approach to the subject under study. Mass communication media have either positive or negative impact on it audience. The analysis in this study would have extended to all media of communication at least for effective comparison of findings, but because of time limit and financial constraints , it is not possible. That is why the study is limited to youths within the campus “ a active viewers of “Campus Circuit’ a Television programme on MINAj Broadcasting international (MBI)