INFLUENCE OF MEDIA OWNERSHIP ON PROFESSIONALISM
This project is based on the theoretical and practical study of the media ownership on professionalism.
In this work, I revaluate the two types of the media-that is, government ownership and private ownership (Minaji System Television Obosi and Nigerian Television Authority Enugu) with a view to recommending a more effective ownership that is, the type of ownership that is geared towards attaining professionalism in media operations.
Professionalism in media operation could be achieved by properly training and motivating media practitioners. The ownership pattern of our media goes a long way in determining the rate of professionalism in media operation. Different chapter of this talks more on this topic.
In summary, media ownership i.e. government or private could be of help in boosting the rate of professionalism by setting out media polices and ethics that will guide the journalists or media practitioners in their duties.
I will firstly than God Almighty for the strength he gave me to be able to write this project.
And also, special thank goes to my elder brother Eng Ilondu Peter for him moral and financial support throughout my staying in school may God reward him abundantly and to my elder brother Mr. Stanley Ezenga and the family for their assisting. And also special gratitude goes to my beloved Sisters Mrs. Amaka Chikwendu, Mrs. Pat Okakpu and Miss Nwannka Ezenga for there mutual advice may Almighty God provide them their need abundantly.
My special honour goes to my supervisor, Mr. Ben Agbo for supervising me from the beginning to the final stage of this project. And also my regard to Mr. Odoh for him helps let me not forget people like Mr. Walfer Nnaji. The Manager for News and Current Affairs in NTA Enugu and the General Manager of MINAJI System Television Obosi for their directing and supporting during the research of this project.
Finally, to Mr. Ifeanyi Agwuneha for him advice and financial help throughout my writing of this project, may God reward him abundantly in all he does. And to Okechukwu Chukwudike for him kindness may God lead him through in Jesus name Amen.
I sincerely wish to thanks all those whose names are not mentioned but contribute to the success of this project, May God bless you all.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE II
APPROVAL PAGE III
TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 6
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 7
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION 7
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 8
1.6 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION10
1.7 ASSUMPTIONS 11
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 12
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 14
2.1 SOURCES OF LITERAATURE 14
2.2 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW 20
3.1 RESEARCH METHOD 22
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 23
3.3 RESEARCH SAMPLE 23
3.4 MEASURING INSTRUMENT 23
3.5 DATA COLLECTION 23
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS 23
3.7 EXPECTED RESULTS 25
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 DATA ANYALYSIS 26
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS 26
4.3 RESULTS 33
5.1 SUMMARY 38
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 39
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
From its inception, in the pre-independence era, the electronic media
Industry had been established to cater for the pleasure of entertaining and information the colonial masters and its subjects. It is noteworthy that apart from providing entertainment for colonial masters and their subjects, the existed as a vital tools in running the day to day activities of government.
In 1977, following the decision of the Federal Military Government to take over all the Television Stations in the country, later, Anambra Broadcasting Co-operation outfit became what is now known as Nigerian Television Authority (NTA Channel 8 Enugu) Enugu State. NTA Channel 8 Enugu, Broadcast on the vision high frequency (VHF) spectrum from its Independent Layout Studio, and it has a 295-metre mast a lokilowatts solid-state digital transmitter at the Abor hills in Udi, Local Government Area of Enugu, Enugu State. It has the State of the Art facilities and studio. It covers thirteen State of the Federation.
This early arrangement market the beginning of dependency of these media stations on government, which as a result affected their function and independence.
The management of NTA Channel 8 Enugu, a government owned media and others like it, till date, still thinks that it is their legitimate function to project and served as the mouth piece of the government. This is because as the saying goes that “he who pays the piper-dictates the tune” NTA Enugu always slick to the dictates of the government in power if it must survive. Since its concept of freedom of disseminating information, has been mortgage by the financial dependency of these media on government it does not broadcast anti-government news. Rather it is often supportive of the government initiatives and various mobilization campaigns by sleeting and emphasizing these campaigns in the news. At times it goes further to do special reports to highlight problem areas for government attention.
Apart from the colonial set-up in the history of ownership, Ownership of Mass Media in the Federal Republic of Nigeria has been facilitated by the Nigeria constitution. In the Nigerian constitution, section 36, sub sections 1-3 put it thus “It provide for everyone the right to establish and operate any opinions, provided that only government at the federal and state level or other person or body authorized by the president shall be outfitted to establish or operate a wireless broadcast medium. And in 1992, the then Military Head of State, General Ibrahim Badamosi Babanigida promulgated a decree allowing private individual participation in the ownership of electronic media.
The aim for liberalizing the electronic media were basically for two main reasons. Firstly, to fin the gaps in government owned reportage and secondly to generate profit reward for the financiers enterprise. Privatization gave birth to the following media outfit Minaji Systems Radio/Lagos/TV. African Independent Television Ibadan /Lagos degree broadcasting network Murhi International Television (MITV) Lagos to mention but a few.
Minaji System Television (MST) 43 VHF Obosi, MST 41, Lagos/Abuja is the first private Television Station sited Obosi in the Eastern Regional market with its high level of commercial and industrial entrepreneurship activities and purchasing power. Minaji System Television
On VHF 43 is transmitting from a mast height of 345 metres, a kilowatts solid-state transmitter with power amplifier cooling system it started test transmission in December 1994. It covers the whole of Anambra, Abia, Imo, Delta, Edo and part of Enugu, Rivers and kogi State. Unlike the NTA Channel 8 Enugu, which is owned and controlled by the government, Minaji System Television (MST) operations are independent of government. The government does not determine the programmers that are carried on this medium because of this relative freedom. It is possible for it to comment critically and more objectively on government matters than the media owned by the government. This forms the basis for the government. This forms the basis for the audience greater confidence in the privately owned media as a more credible media. There is a higher standard which privately owned media (Minaji) strive at which is public confidence as a means to advertising gains.
The NTA Channel 8 Enugu being a government medium has some effects on its staff performance due to the following. Lack of training of staff, most of the staff in NTA Enugu, Enugu has never enjoyed any kind of training workshop or seminar, according to an anonymous staff it is done on higher grade level or those that have God Fathers that are allowed to go, thus omission he says seriously affect the poor performance of staff. Take minaji system for instance due to the frequent training given to the staff, their performance cannot be compared to NTA in terms of presentation, maintained of equipment and managerial ability etc.
Poor motivation by the employers because of the hazardous nature of the job performed by broadcasters, it is vital that they should be adequately motivated, through the new management of the NTA Channel 8 Enugu is trying but unlike Minaji System Television (MST) who pays their staff attractive remuneration to up lift their morals, so as to be motivated.
NTA Enugu fund it difficult to motivated there staff both in prompt payment of salary promotion etc. We should also note that the salaries of these working in government media like NTA Enugu is very poor. Constant interference to the objectivity of the media content since government owned media are not independence, the objectivity of the media content are always interfered upon by the government or its agent.
In the aspect of crisis reporting for example the Odi Crsis in Bayelsa State when army killed raped and burnt a whole village NTA Channel 8 will try to be less keen as possible in reporting it while Minaji does better in carrying and reporting such news. Also most employees of government media for instance lost their job simple because activities only to withheld objectives.
Conversely, the objective of profit making seriously limit the chances of all kind of news going on screen since the organization tries to achieve credibility among its audience for commercial profit. While sanctions on the privately owned media for over critical reportage comes inform of revocation of license and closure of the media or total suspension of the manager of news (Editor) reports or the general manager.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
It has always been claimed by people in government and private that both government and private owner do not interfere with the activities of the media, yet non-conformity to the policies of the owners have always resulted in the immediate dismissed of journalist from their duties.
How true is the observation that the attitudes of those journalist of ten conflict with those of the executives who delegates the job to gather and write news for them the big problem now is how the owners policies influence the performance of the mass media practitioners. Thus assertion is going to be resolved after proper analysis of the research data to find out the truth.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In the researchers decided to embark on this study on my personal observations from the mass media contents especially here in Nigerian. In this study, I shall look into the problem of ownership that is government and privately owned media.
This study therefore aims at finding out the influence of ownership of the media on the rate of professionalism in the media operations.
In the study also, my emphasis would be on the government and privately owned media these are Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Channel 8 Enugu and Minaji System Television (MST) on (VHF) 43 Obosi, though, the two serve are the same political master.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The importance of the study is very important to the society because the mass media influence and motivate attitude change as well as the formation of individual attitude in the society. The society will benefit from the study in selecting the information that are worth while from those that are not.
The importance of this study also centers around the benefits to the society as well as to the media through which the information came to them, they have a different reaction to the story compared to when they do not know the report of this study will place them at such a height from where they can distinguish between objectivity and slanting of news items.
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Does ownership affect the performance of the media practitioners?
2. Privately owned media fill the information gap skipped by the government owned media?
3. Does the policy of a particular medium determine the mediums and its practitioner out put?
4. Can the interest of a medium influence the medium and its practitioner’s style of reporting.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES AND NULL
H1 Ownership affects the performance of the media practitioners.
Ho Ownership does not affect the performance of the media practitioners.
H2 Privately owned media fill the information gap skipped by the
Government owned media.
Ho Privately owned media do not fill the information gap skipped by the
Government owned media.
H3. The policy of a particular medium will determine that mediums and its practitioner out put.
Ho. The policy of a particular medium cannot determine that mediums and its practitioner out put.
H3. The interest of a media owner can influence the media’s and its practitioner’s style of reporting.
Ho. The interest of a media owner cannot influence the media’s and its practitioner style of reporting.
1.7 CONCEPTUAL DEFINTION OF THE VARIABLES MEDIA
Right of possession especially by law for somebody or body of persons who own a channel (Radio, Television and News Paper) thought which information is transmitted.
Media policy means a plan of action of the media.
This means the manner of reporting of the media.
This is conceptually defined as the act of performing.
OPERATIONAL DEFINTION OF THE VARIABLE MEDIA OWNERSHIP
Government owned: This includes all news organization owned and controlled by the government e.g. NTA Enugu, F.R.C.N ESBS Enugu.
Privately owned: This includes those news organization owned and controlled by private individual e.g. Minaji System Television/Radio, Dengue Broadcasting Network (DBN) African Independent Television, Ray Power, Murhu International Television.
This is the various aims and ideals of media made by its owners.
Reporting style is the various kinds of accepted ways of reporting events.
This is various kinds of output of the media by its practitioners.
Let assume that government need publicity and to achieve this, they
report to establishing their own medium of communication so as to enable them voice out their feelings.
It is also assume that some private owners of the media establish them to make profit and to promote self and to some extent render public services.
And also assumed that government want to suppress the voices of opposition altogether.
Assumed also, is the fact that politician establish their own media to sell their political ideologies, while use theirs to support political parties.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The number of media houses to be sampled for this study may not be enough to give the true picture of media activities in Nigerian.
Time factor is another problem that hundred us and because of it we could not go further for more facts.
Another problem I investigated was that of people giving the questionnaires they were biased in supplying answers and in sincere.
And lastly because of financial constraints more media, house and practitioner could not be sampled.