THE EFFECT OF RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCAST CAMPAIGN ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HIV/AIDS CRISIS IN ENUGU URBAN.
The cardinal objective of this study was to empirically comparison of the role of television and radio broadcasting in the management of HIV/AID in Enugu Urban. The researcher made use of the survey research method to collect the required data. Sample size was mathematically deduced using the Taro Yamane method of sample size determination. There, the researcher administered questionnaires out of which were well filled and returned which researcher collected and analyzed in the course of the study. Again, the researcher made use of the chi-square statistical technique in testing the hypotheses while the tabulation and simple percentage was used in the analysis of the questionnaire items. The result of the analysis shows that the television and radio brodcasting have been effective and immense help in the management of HIV/AIDS. This is because the result cum the reviewed literature indicated among other-thing that has been a decease in the occurrence of the pestilence of HIV/ AIDS. With the above in mind, the researcher recommended that the media should double it effort efficiently and effectively so as to minimize the present rate of the rampage for the betterment of entire humanity.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgment- - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents- - - - - - - vi
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Objective of the study - - - - - - 3
1.3 Significance of the study - - - - - 4
1.4 Research questions - - - - - - 4
1.5 Research hypothesis - - - - - - 5
1.6 Definition of terms - - - - - - 6
1.7 Assumption of study - - - - - - 7
1.8 Scope and limitation of study k - - - - 8
1.9 Theoretical framework- - - - - - 9
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - 11
2.1 Source of literature - - - - - - 11
2.2 Review of relevant literature - - - - - 14
2.3 Summary of literature review - - - - 19
2.4 Statement of research problem - - - - 23
3.0 Research methodology- - - - - - 25
3.1 Research method - - - - - - 25
3.2 Research population - - - - - - 25
3.3 Research Sampling technique - - - - 26
3.4 Determination of sample size - - - - 26
3.5 Instrument for collection of data - - - - 27
3.6 Research design - - - - - - - 28
3.7 Measuring instrument - - - - - 28
3.8 Method of data presentation analysis - - - 29
3.9 Expected result - - - - - - - 29
4.0 Date presentation and analysis - - - - 30
4.1 Testing of hypothesis - - - - - - 35
4.2 Finding - - - - - - - - 36
4.3 Discussion of findings - - - - - 39
5.0 Summary conclusion and recommendation - - 42
5.1 Summary of finding - - - - - - 42
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 44
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - 45
Bibliography - - - - - - - 47
Questionnaire - - - - - - - 48
Appendix reproduction of questionnaire - - 49
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
Ordinarily, the word media is the plural of medium, a process of transmitting or passing message from one person to the other.
Television and radio are the electronic media in which HIV/AIDS crisis in Enugu urban are properly managed. This is the main ways that large members of the society received information and entertainment. It is no more dyad or interpersonal communication, it is the mass media, the process by which by which information flows from a point to every diversified audience through automated devices, simultaneously or at the same time.
The point being made here is that the media are a veritable means of purveying news or information from a point to other points, using as we have said earlier, the electronic media. However, the electronic media, television and radio etc appear to possess unequal powers, dominating and domineering as it is respectfully called the watchdog of the society, and also help in the promotion of the awareness of this endemic disease of our generation to the entire public.
The functions of the media are very vast and inexhaustible as it spanned across the length and width of the society with various forms of developmental objective be it urban or rural. Simply put, by their presence, the mass media have altered the nature of societal communication norm. Large audience have been create that expect the media to provide commentary and other messages. People depend on the electronic media for various forms of gratification based upon the content. If denies such communication, they fed deprived
Benelson, (1950, 889- 898) noted that, even in relatively underdeveloped societies, population quality develop media related once mass communication become available to them in form they understand people according to Waiter Lippman (1922) act upon the basis of the picture in their head rather than the reality of the world outside. We have leant through research that the images and words the media carry determine within the limitation posed by interviewing factors, openness of people and their actions.
It is believed that in the imperfect world there is no simple antidote to human ills but, publicity is often a vital step to finding the cure for many illness/ diseases.
In this line therefore, it is believed that extensive massage transmitted by the mass media and true information on the HIV/AIDS campaign will get rid and perhaps reduce sexual transmitted, the publicity and effort to eradicate become imperative.
There are some other disease like; malarias, tuberculosis, chicken pox etc. but is known that HIV/AIDS is the worst disease which has vowed to set back the thick of clock f the entire human race since the black league of the 14th century already caught this awful disease and do not know it, and did not know it for years.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
1. To ascertain the efforts already made by the mass media, mainly the electronic media in the proper management of HIV/AIDS in Nigerian in general and Enugu State on particular.
2. To reveal how efficient or otherwise that the mass media (television and radio) programmer or contents prove to be in the management of HIV/AIDS)
3. To know how supportive the television and radio have been to the state government in the going fight against the epidemic.
4. To stimulate further studies on the issue in focuses.
5. To make recommendation on how the television and radio
could be more proactive in this course.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDU
It is envisaged that out come of the will help to alert the adults population on the dangers inherent in Aids and equally contribution to existing literature in area of television and radio
The study will help ministries and other HIV/AIDS bodied to determine which of the mass media to employ in dissemination HIV/AIDS information.
It is hoped that the study will further equip the media practitioners, communication experts and researchers to come up with concrete and more futuristic approach to cover all manners of campaign without much to do in our country.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Do people get most information about HIV/AIDS through the television and radio?
2. Does electronic media campaign contribute in changing attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Enugu state.
3. Is electronic media publicity of HIV/AIDS proactive in curbing the
4. Does the present mass media response to HIV/AIDS pandemic adequately in curbing the disease?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
Ho: people do not get most information about HIV/AIDS through the television and radio only.
Hi: Most people get their information about HIV/AIDS through the television and radio.
Ho: Electronic media campaign do not contribute in changing people’s attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Eungu state.
H2: Electronic media campaign people’s mind set towards HIV/AIDS in the state.
Ho: The television and radio publicity on HIV/AIDS is not proactive in curbing the diseases.
H3: The electronic media publicity on HIV/AIDS is very is proactive in curbing the disease.
Ho: The present mass response to HIV/AIDS pandemic is not adequate in curbing the disease.
H4: The present mass media response to HIV/AID pandemic is not adequate in curbing the diseases.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS:
CONCEPTUAL: A large number of people or thing grouped together, after in confused way.
OPERATIONAL: The homogeneous and ungrouped set people resident in various locality.
CONCEPTUAL: The main ways that large numberof people received information and entertainment.
OPERATIONAL: used to refer to broadcasting out fits and print outfits which include radio, television, newspaper and magazine.
CONCEPTUAL: Is the series of activities of the media aimed at reducing a social problem.
OPERATIONAL: Is the well articulated of the media in a bit to curd HIV/AIDS in any society.
CONCEPTUAL: The apparatus which its function depend on the behaviour of electronic either by usual or sounds.
OPERATIONAL: Used for transmitter and broadcasting of news in both television and radio station.
CONCEPTEUAL: Careful handling of situation or issues.
OPERATIONAL: Prevention and total care including treatment of HIV/AIDS.
CONCEPTUAL: A situation where the peace of an environment or organization is threatened.
OPERATIONAL: The HIV/AIDSepidemic including itsravaging consequences.
1.7 ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY:
1. The research work assumed that the mass media really contribution in the management of HIV/AIDS crisis in Eungu Urban as well as in Nigeria at large.
2. The research assumed that the information on supplied by the respondents was reliable and mainly accurate.
3. The type of sampling procedures, instrument of data collection, method of data collection analysis among others being used in this study are best that could be used.
1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATION STUDY:
This study concentrated on the role of television and radio broadcasting in the management of HIV/AIDS crisis in Enugu urban. The researcher acknowledge the presence of HIV/Aids epidemic in the global society, and only Enugu urban well be take into concentration.
Furthermore various institution and government entities are involved in one campaign or the other proactive in curbing the disease. But only the campaign from the television and radio are effectively in forces in useful in the management of HIV/AIDS in the global society.
Like all human endeavours, this study was not without some obstacles that posed a threat to its completion. Among these obstacles include the limited frame of time coupled with other academic works and publicity of fund to freely executes this onerous work.
However, it is hoped that the public would finds this work interesting and useful especially in the are that HIV/AIDS have become a household name and as a social malady.
1.9 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK:
Mass communication theories that are relevant to this study were used for a better appreciation or rather an assessment of the proper management of HIV/AIDS crisis in Nigeria and West Africa at large.
The agenda setting theory for instance emphasize that the public focuses attention and obtain a clear knowledge of issue that is constantly reported by the mass media. In other words, the mass media helps to establish an order or priorities in our society about its problems, objectives and solutions. This they do by publicizing what is happening in the society about the epidemic diseased of HIV/AIDS.
According to Lawson (1986) the agenda setting theory proposed that the public agenda is what people discuss, think and worry about, are powerfully shaped and direct by what media choose to publicize.
The above therefore, lays credence to the fact that media campaign in proactive. The assumption is on the ground that at least, the media have succeeded in telling the public what to think about HIV/AIDS epidemic and it incurable nature, prevention and survival strategy for those already affected.
Again, this research work is anchored mainly on the agenda setting theory which dwells on the ability of the press to set the mind of the public to certain burning issues and lure them into discussing the subject matter.
The issue of HIV/AIDS is an alarming issue of our time, which set the thick of clock of life. Therefore, everyone should ensure that adequate attention is given to it for the future of our generation. The should not be left alone for the electronic media, other agencies should put their hands on deck to eradicate this in our society because a healthy society is a wealthy society.