The Effect Of Television Advert On The Buying Habit Of Consumers (a Case Study Of Peak Milk Advert In Enugu State).

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This study is aimed at given insight into the effects of television advertisement on the buying habit peak milk consumers. It is a research survey based on a sample size of 500 Enugu state Dwellers.

Careful empirical studies have show that advertising actually influence peoples choice on their consumption of some goods and services as well as their buying habits especially peak milk in can and sachets, more over this study will guide the producers and advertiser to understand the best techniques to reach their prospective consumers.

Chapter one of this study unfolds the definition of advertising and effect on the buying habits of consumers with relation to a particular medium or television. This study revealed viewers attitude and consider television effectiveness or failure in realizing its set objectives.




Title page         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i

Approval page -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii

Dedication       -       -       --     -       -       -       -       -       iii

Acknowledgement    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iv

Abstract   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       v

Table of contents     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi



Introduction     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       1

1.1      Background of the study -       -       -       -       1

1.2      Statement of the problem        -       -       -       -       5

1.3      Objective of the study      -       -       -       -       -       6

1.4      Significance of the study -       -       -       -       -       8

1.5      Research questions -       -       -       -       -       -       9

1.6      Research hypothesis        -       -       -       -       -       10

1.7      Theoretical framework     --     -       -       -       -       10

1.8      Scope of the study   -       -       -       -       -       -       11

1.9      Limitation of the study     -       -       -       -       -       12

1.10  Conceptual and operational definition     -       -       12

References       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       14



Literature review      -       -       -       -       -       -       15   

2.1      Introduction     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       15

2.2      Advertising effects on the psychological determination of buying habits -        -       -       -       -       -       21

References       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       28



3.1      Research Methodology     -       --     -       -       -       29

3.2      Research Design/population of the study        -       29

3.3      Sample and sampling techniques -  -       -       -       31

3.4      Measuring instrument     -       -       -       -       -       33

3.5      Data collection         -       -       -       -       -       -       35

3.6      Method of Data Analysis  -       -       -       -       -       35

3.7       Expected Result      -       -       -       -       -       -       36

References       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       37


4.1      Data Analysis   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       38

4.2      Results    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       46

Discussion       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       47

References       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       50


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation -       -       51

5.1      Summary                 -       -       -       -       -       -       51   

5.2      Conclusion      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       52

5.3      Recommendations   -       -       -       -       -       -       54

Bibliography    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       55

Appendix         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       59

Questionnaire -       -       -       -       -       -       -       60




Advertising is defined as both personal and non personal communication of information usually paid for and it is usually persuasive in nature, about a products, services, announcement or ideas by identified sponsored through various media.

Adverting is a market took that serves several functions, it identities and differentiated them from others, it also communicates information about the products and induces trail of new product by new users and suggest repurchasing by existing users to increase product use. It also builds brand reference and loyalty etc.

According to history, the advertising began in the early times when most people could not read and write, the nature of advertising changes from time to time since it origination, perhaps as 400 Bc, until the invention of printing press in about 1436. since then its role has been significantly altered at least twice. One in response to the industrial and once with the annual of affluent society.

The past world war 11 era has been marked by growth and television adverts, incense differentiate products through strategies or other techniques.

With television you can communicate in both sight and sounds usually in bonus of movement. This U= is what makes television so powerful in our particular area that of demonstration.

With the coming of commercial television in 1955, we have for the first time iii Britain the ability to go right into television adverts

The effects of this television adverts on the baying habits of consumers is the paramount important to this research. Hence television is an effective way of bringing message to consumers, because of its characteristics way of combining pictures and sound.

They tends to see, hear and commenced if not wholly but partly towards a particular adverts, such that will convince the target audience, the advertiser must understood the complexity of human behaviour and the verity of effects on bahaviour.

As advertisers become aware of behavioral characteristics, they can use those characteristics features to defined new markets and developed advertising campaign for those markets.

Consumers behaviour is affected by those internal individual influences, include the consumer perception of the world and learn the habits they have developed, external individual influences include the consumers family social structure and culture.

They way those influencing factors integrated within the consumer determines how that consumer will behave, his reaction towards a particular adverts. The incitation of an instance of modern times advertising, it can be said that adverts or practice of adverts is as old as man.

One can assume that the first adverts on earth surface is between the serpents, eve and Adam her husband, because Adam and Eve were first victims of the overwhelming power of advertisement in Europe.

The oldest  method of advertisement used by the early craft man was town crying and signs.

In addition advertising has helped or has been useful to industries (manufactures) by the way it helps them to advertise their products, it features and area of location and sales. They build brand preference and loyalty.

Television adverts has been used to battle against competitors by introducing distinctive contour design. Eg peak milk used slogan such as its peak, rich and and creamy contains 28 vitamin minerals and “instant full cream powered milk. All these has been used to promote sales of peak milk and which have made people to prefer peak milk to other brand. Eg three crowns and cowbell. The handy packed sachet peak is now in the market selling more than any other brand of milk.

In conclusion advertisement must attract attention, stimulates, interest, create desire, inspire conviction and influence action. The tool to answer the realization of these objectives.



Their has been controversy for sometimes, about the effectiveness of television as a medium for advertising, there is this belief that commercials in other communication media like the print and radio will effect the behaviour of people more, in a country like America where advertising on television has attained highest height. there is a believe that most people used the time occupied by commercial breaks to do other things meaning that large number of consumers may not watch television commercials, moreover there is this feeling that because of the abstract communication method sometimes used in television commercials, people find it difficult to understand the message which they convey.

People in certain case have already formulated attitudes towards certain adverts that can hardly be changed. In such cases that effects communication adverts are almost null.



The research deals on if television adverts actually have some effects on the buying habits of consumers, especially peak milk and to find out if such aim is being realized through products demonstration in television advertising.

Now that the research is dealing with the effects of television adverts, it is pertinent to narrow it down to viewers of television in terms of positive and negative response. The purpose of this study is to find out if television adverts aid in gaining initial adverts attention and aid to promote products identification to buy the products or not.(peak milk) this research is also geared towards whether television adverts have effects on the buying habit. That is to identify what actually motivates the consumers into making choice.

Example is seen when people prefer peak milk to three crown milk and cowbell. This will also look into whether some factors like cultural beliefs, personal opinion and recommendations by others in any way influence persons making choice.

The viewers (targeted audience) to television have to be contained as well. This study will equally asses the level of penetration of television advertising on people of deferent ages, groups as in come bracket and sex.



The research will show the need for unique selling appeal and repetition of television message for a product like peak milk. It will also enable the producers and advertisers of product to understand the best method to reach their prospective consumers and also know why television advertisement is mostly preferred to other media.

There is serious competition to different products in the market today, it is as result of different means of advertising in the country. That the  advertisers are trying to see that their products crate awareness through the means of advertising.

The consumer on the other hand seems to be confused as to which medium of communication relays the advertisers massage properly and which of media adverts have effects on them.

Therefore, it is necessary to carry out this study to know whether television advertisement really has effects on the buying habits of the consumer. And also to know whether people prefer adverts that are made with real human being to that off cartoon.



1.          To what extent does television adverts influence the buying habits of consumers on peak?

2.          Does repetition on adverts create closure on consumers product purchase?

3.          Are consumers more likely to remember products seen in television advertisement than any other media of advertisement?

Answer got will enable researcher find out if actually television adverts do effects consumers in their choice of products.



Hi:    television adverts have adverse effects on the buying habits of consumers.

Ho:   television adverts do not have effects on the buying habits of consumers.

H2:   repetition of adverts on television do motivates consumers to action.

Ho:   Repetition of adverts on television does not motivates consumers to action.

H3:   consumers remembers quite often products seen on television than in any other means of adverts.



The theoretical frame work of this research is a cultivation theory or analysis, this theory was developed by George Gerbner during the 1970’s and 1980’s Gerbner and his associates have been concerned with the beliefs that television “cultivates” alots in the world. The major proposition is that people who involve them selves deeply in televisions fictional world (heavy viewers) should deeply belief what correspond on that work.

With this theory we can known say that television adverts of peak milk has serious effect on the buying habits of consumers of perk milk.



These research studies has a residence of some parts of Enugu state metropolis dwellers as focus, to find out the extent television adverts have affected the consumers of peak milk on their buying habits.

Enugu state dwellers are considered appropriate for the fact that it has some more television viewers which will help the researcher in eliciting the desire information, it also have the desired population expected of people and so researchers are commenced.



Like most endeavours, this study is not derived of limitation, its result can therefore not be very conclusive.

The whole truth is that this is the researchers first attempt of some scientific study, is in itself limiting factors.

Inadequate finance has also posed some limitation to the study the larger the sample, the more efficient will be the result the researcher will get but due to inadequate in financial assistance which could have aid the research made the sample size to be limited to 500.

Another limiting factor was scarcity of materials for indebted findings. A more detailed work would have been done on this study to achieve a better results.


In this section the researcher has decided to explain some certain terms which the reader might find confusing and also for easy understanding of the project.

ADVERTISING:       Act of marketing some thing deliberately known to people through any of the channels of mass communication and persuading them for positive action towards that thing or product.

TLEEVISION ADVERT: all marketing communication about product of services cannels to the public through television usually by an identified sponsor.

BUYING DECISION: the ability of the consumers to conclude to purchase a particular product.

INFLUENCE: power to affect somebody’s or people character, belief or action through example or powerful presentation.   

INTERNAL INFLUENCE: these are personal needs and motive of the consumers, his perception, the habit he had developed that influence his behaviour.

EXTERNAL INFUENCE: these are the environmental influence of the consumer such as families, social structure and culture.

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The Effect Of Television Advert On The Buying Habit Of Consumers