SUSTENANCE OF NIGERIAN MASS MEDIA INDUSTRY THE CRITICAL ROLE OF ADVERTISING
This research work was purely undertaken to discover, evaluate and exhaustively determine the critical role of the advertising in the sustenance of Nigeria mass media industry which has not been fully realized that warranted this study.
This work is in depth study into the role of advertising in the sustenance of Nigeria mass media industry. It is a five chapter work.
Chapter one is an introduction to the work, where as chapter two reviews related literature on the study chapter three is concerned with the research methodology while chapter four gives a summary of the entire work as well as conclusion and recommendation for further studies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page II
Approval page III
Table of Contents VIII
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 The History of the Media 4
1.3 Objectives of the study 8
1.4 Significance of the study 8
1.5 Statement of research problem 9
1.6 Research Questions 10
1.7 Research Hypotheses 10
1.8 Definitions of Terms 11
1.9 Assumptions 13
1.10 Limitations of the study 14
2.1 Sources of Literature 15
2.2 Theoretical Frame Work 18
2.3 The print Media problem
2.4 Print Media Break Even Means 20
2.5 Advertising, A case promotion of the Print Media 23
2.6 Advertising and press Freedom 25
2.7 Broadcast Media 27
2.8 Advantages of Advertising in the
Broadcast, Media 27
2.9 The Government Advertising and the
Broadcast Media 30
2.10 Broadcast Media and Advertising Agencies has it been sweet Romance. 33
3.0 Introduction 36
3.1 Research Method 36
3.2 Research Design 37
3.3 Research Sample 39
3.4 Measuring Instrument 39
3.5 Data Collection 40
3.6 Data Analysis 41
3.7 Expects Results 42
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 DATA ANALYSIS 43
4.2 Data Distribution And Analysis 43
5.1 Summary 55
5.2 Conclusion 56
5.3 Recommendations 58
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media and advertising as separate institutions have a unique symbiotic relationship. Dating back to the history of the “Print Media in Nigeria, the Lagos weekly record by John Jackson was able to survive until late eighteen century in the face of low patronage, readership, amateurism, and stiff competition that characterized the early print media in Nigeria because of government adverts placed in it. This 150 points a year advertisement gave the weekly record about 400 ponds in 1900 the (Fred Omu) (Fed Omu, 1978: 1933).
Today, the trend is still the same. The media men and advertising practitioners cannot still cope without each other. On the hand, there is no way the advertiser can send his message across without the use of the media.
There are lots of other gains to be derived from the media advertising relations which this paper intends the explore to my capability.
In the mean time, it is relevant to induced at this point a brief definitions of the basic institutions on which lies the care of this research project, as their importance. The media on one hand is associated with mass communication. The media being the medium for mass communication, and mass communication which involves comminuting with a mass audience or a large number of people at a particular time (Nwosu 1987). Although the use of a mass medium or a combination of media is not mention it is an essential need in mass communication.
Adverting on the other hand, has, many definitions “based on individual under standing, what advertising is (Nwosu , 1999). He believes the best definition of advertising is that “it is mass communication which is aimed amend at helping to sell goods services , idea, persons” .
This definition apparently point out that advertising and media have a lot in common. Here is becomes necessary to examine the extent of the commonalties, and chiefly the ways advertisement is indispensable to the media survived. However, it could not be rule out the fact that there are some basic differences, that are not covered by theme of this research project.
In viewing this study on the side of the broadcast media in Nigeria, the case is still almost the same. Time has actually passed when the Nigerian broadcast stations were been supported solely by government funds. But the begging of the depression, advertising revenue from the sales of time and programmes has become from the sales of time and programmes has become a viral sources of income for broadcast media in Nigeria. Hence the 100% government owned broadcast media have gone particularly or full commercial.
Lastly, this study would be based on a study of prominent newspapers and broadcast stations.
For better understating of this topic. It is however, pertinent to out line a brief history of the media and how it relates to advertising.
1.2 THE HISTORY OF THE MEDIA
The media in Nigeria started as early as 1854 when a publication. IWE IROHN was established by revered gentlemen Henry Town send. At that time it was solely for religions purposes, and as such there was nothing like advertisement in the publication.
Soon after that, a total of fifty – one newspapers was established in 1880 and 1937. The Lagos weekly record own by John Jackson was the publications, and that made it to last longer than other newspapers as the government arranged to pay Jackson a sum of 150 pounds a year or government notices in the weekly record. It should also be observed that advertisement brought a revenue of about 300 pounds in 1875, and 400 ponds in 1900.
Noteworthy is the face that contemporary news papers than was not able to last long because of financial difficulties, hence some were running at a loss, and this was due to lack of advertisement that could have helped to meet cost of production and as well make profit for those newspapers.
Apart from the Lagos weekly record, the Daily. Times which was a partnership venture between certain Nigeria, and European businessmen was another newspaper was sustained though “ the significant expansion in advertisement support”.
The broadcast media formally started in Nigeria with the inauguration of Nigeria Broadcasting service. In 1751, in Lagos, this was followed by the establishment of Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service in 1957. Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting service in 1952 and Northern Nigeria Broadcast media was solely founded by the government. In 1967 when 12 stated were created, broadcast media increased. With further creation of states in 1976 and 1988, more broadcasting stations were established as states want it for present and dissention of information of government policies.
Only state own Broadcast media and Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) sell advertise time. The Federal radio corporation (FRCO) was still being funded by the government, not until 1982 when government allowed it to go commercial. This than increase the number of stations in the country, thereby giving advertisers many stations which they can buy air time.
Advertising in Nigeria can be traced back to 1928, when the former West African publicity company, now LINTAS led to the advertisement of other advertising outfit as Hormblow code and Freeman, Glilines West Africa, Anger and Tunner, and Nigeria Burean of publicity. One unique characteristic of all these advertising outfit is that they were mainly owned by foreigners.
It is not all that is a success story between 1930 and 1940, in that they have initial problem in the form of ‘absence of local experts, and insufficient publicity houses”.
Between 1928 to 1944 there was not much relationship between the media and these advertising outfits, as “the press medium begun to play a minimal role in Nigeria advertisement. There were the Daily Times, Lagos Daily News and Nigerian Telegraph. The situation continued until the 1950s and 1960s that advertising begun to become popular.
In 70s, there was emergence of indigenous advertising outfits funded and owned by Nigerians. As at 1988, there were about 68 advertising with the increase in economic activities and need to promote products, services, services, ideas, there comes the need to advertising, and the media to send message across.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective (s)of this study is to find out if advertising has any role to play in the sustenance of the media.
It will also of important interest (s) to point out how this role I played, and of what relevant it is to the media.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SYUDY
The significance of this study is that it will help media and non – media people to know if advertising plays critical role in the sustenance of Nigerian mass industry. And if it plays and role, has this role been played or properly played. I will believe that this will help media practitioners and the advertising practitioners to find ways of improving the role. It will also help them to appreciate each other problem to their mutual benefit.
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
It has been observed that running a mass media is capital intensive enterprises over the years, so many Nigerian mass media fund and it is under a dispute whether all the avenue that help in sustaining a mass media come from advertisement. Therefore, this project is geared towards finding the critical role of advertising in the sustenance of Nigeria most media industry.