AN EVALUATION OF PRODUCT POSITIONING STRATEGIES IN CONSUMER PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
This study was on “An Evaluation Of Product Positioning Strategies In Consumer Products Industries In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Unilever Nigeria Plc Operation In Enugu Metropolis). The objectives for which the study was carried out are: To know what product positioning is all about as it involves the company under study. To find out if the product positioning is all about as it involves the company under study. To find out if the product positioning strategies adopted by the company convince. The customers that their products are what they are expected to be in the market. To know if the company product positioning strategies increase the profit of objectives. In addition, a extensive literature review was carried out. The population for the study include relevant staff and management of Unilever Nigeria Plc, their distributors and as well as their customers, census survey was used for relevant staff and management, Bourley’s formular was used for the customers in determining sample size questionnaires were analyzed using table and percentages, and the hypothesis formulated were tested using chi-square. The researcher came up with the following findings: That the use of product positioning strategies by Unilever Plc creates the right image in the mind of the customers; the use of product position strategies elp to improve the marketing strategies of the company. Based on the this, the researcher recommends the following . the management of Unilever Plc should continue to maintain an effective and optional use of product positioning strategies, since this is one of the sources through which customer can measure the value of their products. The company should recognize that for efficient and effective performance, good product positioning strategies are needed. Finally, it is the researcher’s opinion that if these recommendations are implemented, Unilever Nigeria Plc will achieve the noble objective of the company.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
1.1 background of the study
1.2 statement of the problem
1.3 objective of the study
1.4 research questions/hypothesis
1.5 significance of the study
1.6 scope of the study
1.7 definition of terms
2.1 overview of marketing
2.2 The marketing mix
2.3 The S.T.P of marketing
2.4 Overview of product positioning
2.5 product positioning process
2.6 bases for positioning a product
2.7 meaning and scope of product positioning strategies
2.8 types of product positioning strategies for consumers
2.9 developing product positioning strategies for consumers
2.10 evaluation of positioning strategies
2.11 communicating the company’s positioning strategies
2.12 company’s profile
3.0 research methodology
3.1 sources of data
3.2 population of the study
3.3 determination of sample size
3.4 sampling techniques
3.5 research instrument used
3.6 questionnaire allocation and administration
3.8 method of data analysis
3.9 limitations of the study
1.0 presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
1.1 presentation and analysis of data
1.2 test of hypothesis
5.0 Summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion
5.1 summaries of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Product positioning is a marketing technique intended to preset products in the best possible light to different target audiences. The method is related to “marketing Segmentation” in that early step in major marketing campaigns is to discover the core market most likely to buy a product or the bulk of the product. Also in marketing, positioning has come to mean the process by which marketers try to create an image or identity in the mind of their target markets for their brands, product or organization. Positioning involves symbol and message manipulation, including displays and package. We must agree that positioning is something that takes place in the mind of target market and also the aggregate perception the market has at a particular company’s product or services in the same category.
According to Rios and Trout, in their book positioning the Battle for your mind, introduce the subject by saying “positioning is not what you do to a product positioning is what you do to the mind of the prospect so, it’s incorrect to call the concept product positioning. As if you were doing something to product itself. Not that positioning doesn’t involve change. It does, but changes made in the name, the price and the package are real not changes in the product at all. Positioning is also the first body of the ought that to comes to grips with the problem of getting heared in our over communication society.
Louis .E. Boone and David L Kurtz, in their book “contemporary marketing” put it this why. “Product positioning refers to consumers perceptions of a products attributes, uses, quality, and advantages and disadvantages relative to competing brands. Marketers often conduct marketing research studies to analyze consumer preference and to construct product position maps that plot their products positions in relation to those of competitors offerings.
Ries and Trout also explains that while positioning begins with a product, the concept really is about positioning that product in the mind of the customers the approach is needed because consumers are bombarded with continuous stream of advertising, they also opines that the tastiest why of getting into someone’s mind is to be first, it is very easy to remember who is first, and much more difficult to remember is second. Even if the second entrant offers a better product, the first mover has a large advantage that can make up for other shortcomings. Positioning is what the customer believes about your products value, features and benefits, it is a comparison to other available alternatives offered by the competition. These beliefs tend to based on customers experiences and evidence, rather than awareness created by advertising or promotion marketers manage product positioning strategy pricing, promotion, channels of distribution and advertising all are geared to maximize the chosen positioning strategy.
Positioning is a marketing strategy where by the marketer associates his product with specific and unique benefits which he wants the consumers to perceive as being different and better than those of the competitors. Positioning has to take place in the perception or mind of his consumers but if the consumers do not have this perception in their mind set, no positioning has occurred. Therefore, for positioning to occur, the target segment must see the company’s product as being unique in what it promises than in relation those of the competitors.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally, a lot of problems confronts the application of product positioning. To describe product positioning does not seen difficult but to put it into practice is not easy. However product positioning practice is a probem in unilever Nigeria Plc though it was carried out. The rest of the problems are stated in the work with the purpose of finding solution to them. The ability of a firm to classify their product instead for them considering their consumers together with their needs and wants. They also go about boasting for being number one and by doing so, the customers will see this is the firm is insecure in its position if it must reinforce it by saying so. The company fails to understand that changes are inevitable and a leader must embrace changes rather than resisting them and remaining stagnant. There is also inability to carryout survey and research because there is no room to know how effective their strategy is and customers responded to their product.