THE IMPACT OF TELEVISION VIEWING ON EDUCATION CHILDREN IN NIGERIA. A STUDY OF CHILDREN IN FUTURE HOPE PRIMARY SCHOOL OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
1.1 BACKGROUND Of THE STUDY
Communication to a great extent Is very important in the existence of man. Every thing that man do to survive in life requires communication.
This idea has lead to the development of various devices to enhance communication and information flow in the world, which television was one of them. Its viewing also became necessary as the events occurring in the society were been televised through the television set. Television viewing is the exposure of Individuals to the programmes of television in order to be aware of the things happening in the society for information improvement.
Adult and children are involved In television viewing but the people that formed the basis of discussion In this study are the children.
The global history of television shows that this mass
medium came Into existence in the 1920s, though its beginnings were discernible in the nineteenth century.
As Amafili (1993:18), points out, television developed from the combination of firm and radio.
The development of modern television began with the invention of the iconoscope and kinescope. These devices were the basis for television transmission and reception respectively, and were invented in 1923 by a Russian immigrant in the United states of American, named Vladimir Zworykin.
The iconoscope tube used electrons to detect and transmit pictures instantly, its invention transformed television into an electric medium. Before this time, television technology depend mechanical reproduction of visual images.
In Nigeria unlike radio, television broadcasting started from the regional rather than the federal government.
This was as result of the urge by the various regions to develop television as much emphasis was laid on the central development of the medium.
This scenario was in line with the political realities of that era. As Okenwa (1993: 55) argues, the polities of Nigeria before independence place more emphasis on the development of the region more than the centre. The first television station was established in 1959. This was followed by the Eastern Nigeria television (ENlV) which came into existence in 1960 and the radio television kaduna (RTK) established In 1962 as an arm of the broadcasting cooperation of Northern Nigeria. Another television station that started in 1962 was NBC-TV known as Nigeria broadcasting services channels 10.
It started broadcasting in a small wooden studio until 1963 when its permanent television house with studio and offices was opened in 1975.
It acquired Its own colour equipment and was sending out signals to the delight of its viewers.
Through govemment Initiatives in 1977 the Nigerian television Authority was created to handle television broadcasting in the country. It was given exclusive right over television broadcasting in Nigeria. Later the 1979, constitution broke the monopoly so that states which wish to operate television stations could do so. This right of ownership was later extended to private indiViduals, resulting in the granting of licenses to private individuals and organizations by the general Ibrahim Babangida Military government in 1993. As is the case with radio broadcasting, this development revolutionalised television broadcasting in modern Nigeria.
In considering the advantages of television, It has the power of combining sound with vision qualities to make "one of the most powerful communication forces In the history of civilization" (sandman et al; 1976).
Amafili (1993: 18), is correct when he says that most striking characteristics of television is the speed with which it disseminates information.
Television messages came in the form of programmes.
Among the programmes are news, musical variety show, entertainment, dramatic programmes, comedy shows, documentary programmes etc.
The survey research method was employed in this research work. The purpose of using this method was for adequate data generation.
The result when actualized will go a long way gUiding the parents to checkmate the rate at which their children are been exposed to television either to encourage them to watch more or to discourage them from excessive watching.
The researcher used agenda setting theory in the study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
The observation by many parents, providers and educators about the way children spend much of their time in television viewing instead of using the time to study their book is worrisome.
An article prepared by Judith Efraham, titled how television viewing affects children, in university of maine cooperative extension bulletin shows that television viewing brings poor school performance in children, violence in the television programmes, video games and movies are growing concern. The children today watch these violent shows and try to imitate it. They strike out at play mates and disobedient authority which affect the positivity of their education.
There is problem of children not living up to expectations in their educational programmes hence cheating in examination halls. Children instead of focusing their mind In doing things like looking at their books, interacting with other children and language development that will help them to perform well in their education now expose themselves in viewing television programmethey will be viewing in television that can enhance their performance in education.
It will also educate the parents on how to monitor the type of programmes their children views in television.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
This study will attempt to provide answers to the under listed questions.
i. What do television viewing contributes to the education of children in the future hope primary school.
ii. What are the benefits of television in the society.
iii. Do television violence programmes generate harm on the education of children.
iv. Do the television have any harmful effect on the society.
v.How can the negative impact of television be changed. 1.6 RESEARCH HYPOHESIS
In the course of this research work, the following hypotheses shall surface.
Hi: Television viewing contributes positively to the education of children In future hope primary school.
Hoi: Television viewing do not contribute positively to the education of the children in future hope primary school.
H2: Television is beneficial to the society.
HO: Television is not beneficial to the society.
H3: Television violence programme generate harm on the education of children.
HO; Television violence programme does not generate harm on the education of children.
H4: Negative impact of television in the society can be changed.
HO: Negative impact of television tn the society cannot be changed.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS:
Due to the reason that some of the terms used In this study may vary from what they entail in an another context, it is essential that some of them are defined in line with their use in this study, their general meaning will also be looking into. CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION
1. IMPACT: Conceptually impact means effect something creates in person or another thing. It refers to how
9 something or person is affecting, it means the result or some thing on another or individual.