Design And Fabrication Of A Printing I Block Machine

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Parameters on which clear prints depends were comprehensively investigated.  The study revealed that clear print depends on the impressed pressure the working temperature and the gold foil print paper life expectancy.

Also studies were he manner of dependence of these parameters on prints impressed  on sheets of varied thickness.  The results of these investigation were  utizlied in the design and fabrication of an operational manual printing machine using gold foil   sheet depositor clear prints were impressed on papers during the new machine’s operation.


In course of realizing this project we to seek ideas and references from certain individuals who on their part did not relent in giving us a helping hand

Our sincere acknowledgements our head of department and supervisor Engr.  Onuigbo J.A and to all the lecturers in the mechanical Engineering department for their academic support  rendered to us in the course of this project.

Also our gratitude goes to the director of for  allowing us access to use his workshop for the completion of our  project work.

Finally our special shout out goes to all our honies both in mechanical Engineering department and to the institute as whole.


TABLE 1  - Experimental determination of pressure for printing

                   11- Effect of temperature on sharpness of print.


                   111 – Description of (components) parts and materials use for them


                   1v- comparison of cost and properties of materials



Figure 1 sketch of alternative A

Figure 2. Sketch of alternative B.

Figure 3 sketch of alternative C

Figure 4 isomeric view of hot plate square housing

Figure 5 isometric view of type holder

Figure 6 &7 load and free body diagram of crank are (Handle) and rod.


A – Area

A – Acceleration

D – Maximum shaft diameter

d-     minimum  shaft diameter

e-       efficiency

k – Thermal conductivity

c – Heat capacity

x – The pressure transmissibility of lever system (press x  1/duration )

t – Time

l – Length of shaft

m – Mass

m – Maximum bearding moment

p - Electric power

q – Quantity of heat



Title page                                                                                          ii

Letter of transmittal                                                                          iii

Release                                                                                              iv

Approval page                                                                                  v

Dedication                                                                                         vi

Acknowledgement                                                                             vii

Abstract                                                                                            viii

List of figures                                                                                    ix

 List of tables                                                                                    x

List of symbols                                                                                 xi

Table of contents                                                                              xii


1.1            introduction                                                                                      1

1.2            literature review and data collection                                        2

1.3            experimental determination of pressure for prating                          3

1.4             design specification                                                                9



2.1            Design solutions                                                                      11

2.2            Alternative A press foot printer                                                        11

2.3            Alternative  B; crank arm  (handle )                                        14

2.4            Alternative  C; automatic (motorized) printer                         17

2.5            Comparison of alternative and choice                                               20


3.1            Design selection and analysis of parts of chosen alternative   22

3.2            Theory of  design/  design calculation                                               24

3.3            The  design of the shaft (Hollow)                                            26

CHAPTER FOUR                

4.1            construction of prototype                                                                 28

4.2            general                                                                                     28

4.3            material selection                                                                     29

4.4            sequence of construction and assembly                                   40


5.1            Testing of prototype (test – run)                                                       40

5.2            Evaluation of machine efficiency                                             40

5.3            Operator’s manual                                                                           41

5.4            Costing  (cost analysis)                                                           42

5.5            Problems Encounter                                                                45

5.6            Conclusion                                                                              45




Recommendation                                                                     46





          Nigeria in recent times lays strong emphasis on mass literacy  and indigenous technology.  Printed matters are indispensable materials in mass literacy campaign  and the trend towards indigenous technology imposes a  severe  clamp down on imputed engineering including printing block machinery.  Thus the situation is  such that make  the acquisition of printing machinery from outside our boards extremely difficult.

          Therefore to lessen the economic strain on  the mass literacy campaign local  production of  printing machinery is apparently imperative.  It is this fact that rendered integrative to the conception and realization of this low cost but efficient printing machine based entirely on local technology and resources.

          The present machine is very useful in the printing of many items like paper backs cards etc. its design and fabrication is expected to motivate and advance the design and fabrication of other machines destined for similar purpose and based on indigenous technology and resources.



          There were no available books in printing in both the state and school libraries that actively dealt with printing technology. The only books available were those  on the  history of ‘Types’ and trade journals advertising products of foreign companies which were fund to be of little or no relevance.

          However a visit to the government printing press gave us an opportunity to study the ‘types’ available and the basic operations of  the giant printing  (Blocking) machine with respect to the ‘Types’ from there we  were able to establish;

(a)              The effect of temperature on the amount of gold deposited from sheet (sharpness of print )

(b)             The  effect of life time on the gold foil sheet depositor.

(c)              The effect of pressure on the amount  of gold  deposited from sheet  (sharpness of print )

(d)             The  effect of size of ‘types’ on the sharpness  of print  (amount of gold  deposited )


Types : These are the characters or alphabets that forms the  letters.

Print :- This is  the mark or impression produced on paper due to the types. Gold foil  sheet depositor :- is a thin rectangular  cellophane sheet coated with gold compound.



The print there must be impact force between two  surfaces on e of which contains the ‘type’ and the other the paper on which print will be made. The force produces the necessary pressure for printing.

       Consider alternative ‘B’ of the possible design solution.  Impact force  is due to the acceleration of mass of moveable plate and rail against the stationary letter box located on the element box.  The pressure for printing is  impact force for a  constant                                                                                 surface area

Impact surface area the pressure varies with variation in the impact force.  Similarly the impact force varies with the mass and acceleration.  But  the  mass is constant and equal to mass of rail plus mass of moveable plate hence only the acceleration varies. Therefore in this experiment effort has been made to determine.

(a)        The  pressure required  to print clearly on thin cellophane sheet without perforating it.

(b)       The pressure required to  print clearly on paper of average thickness without perforating it

(c)        The  pressure required to print on cardboard sheet such that very sharp prints are obtained  by varying the input acceleration

Materials: very light cellophane paper, paper back of higher education exercise book ceiling sheet (card board)  silver sheets,

Apparatus: Election- speed printer machine

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Design And Fabrication Of A Printing I Block Machine