THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE SECRETARIAL PROFESSION (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS IN PORT-HARCOURT METROPOLIS)
Information Technology that is formally known as modern office machines are widely been used in our offices today. It is usually been used in order to facilitate office work and reduces labour cost. The aim of this study is to determine the extent the Information Technology (IT) has helped the secretary in the dissemination/execution of his or her daily routine works.
Prior to the technological development in offices, clerical works were done manually. But today the invention of some equipment such as word processor, computer, electronic typewriter, facsimile transceiver, accounting machines and telephone etc.
The purpose of this study is to investigate into the secretarial profession in order to find out the effects, which the use of these modern office equipment have on the job performance of the secretary. And in order to determine these, I designed questionnaires, which were distributed to secretaries and their boss. After analyzing their responses, I found out among others that modern office machine enhances the efficiency of the secretary.
I also found out that secretaries were satisfied with their job because they are now using modern office equipment. Based on my findings, I recommended that business organizations that are still making use of obsolete gadgets should replace them with the modern office machines in order to enhance the job performance of their secretaries. I also recommended that institution of higher learning should procure this modern equipment to be used in the training prospective secretaries.
The scope of this research work is limited to some business organizations in Port-Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page ii
Approval page iii
Table of content viii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the study 6
1.4 Significance of the study 6
1.5 Limitation of the study 7
1.6 Research questions 8
1.7 Definition of terms 9
Review Of Related Literature 12
2.1 The impact of information Technology
devices on the job performance, efficiency
and satisfaction of secretaries. 12
2.2 Review of some information Tech. Machine
in an organization. 17
2.3 The place of the secretary in the face of
the advancement in technology. 22
2.4 Summary of literature review. 25
Research Methodology 27
3.1 Area of study 28
3.2 Population of study 28
3.3 Scope and sample techniques 28
3.4 Description of researcher instrument 29
3.5 Instruments of validation 30
3.6 Administration and collection of research instrument 31
3.7 Decision Rule 31
Presentation and analysis of data 32
4.1 Qualifications of respondents 32
4.2 Level of working experience 33
Summary, implications and problems for future study,
conclusion and recommendations 49
5.1 Summary of findings 49
5.2 Conclusion 51
5.3 Recommendations 51
5.4 Limitation of the study 53
5.5 Implication of the study 53
5.6 Problem of further studies 54
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to the topic, the key word Secretary comes from Latin word “Secret”. Originally, it means one entrusted with the secrets and confidences of a superior. Personal Secretary, being a skilled and specialized type of employee in an establishment is entrusted with some aspects of organizational functions in the unit including dealing with people, correspondence and other business matters, especially private or confidential matters.
Secretarial profession had started as far back as 1920. Prior to the advent of Technological facilities improvement, such as computer, word processor, and
Electric typewriter etc. Secretaries used reed pen in taking shorthand dictations, processing minutes and letters, that rather makes their job boring and less interesting.
During the industrial revolution at the turn of the century, businesses offices faced a paper-work crisis. And Secretary solved the crisis by adapting well to new technologies such as adding and calculating machines, telephone and electric typewriter. Today, secretaries who are also known as administrative assistants, office co-coordinators, executive assistants etc, are using computers, Internet and other advance office technologies to perform vital “Information management” functions in the modern office.
Secretaries no longer simply type correspondence for the boss. But now, they often write that correspondence as well as plan meeting, organize data using spreadsheet and database management.
In 1960’s the Information Technology came into existence, and it is a set of standards covering all processes involved in the development of an integrated computer database management.
Information system, that are used today by the secretaries in the normal execution of their routine works.
The evolution of Information Technology (IT) was traced back to the age of Abacus Computer by the Egyptians around, 3,000 BC. It was used for the systematic calculation of the arithmetic and numeric operations. At the sometime “the Boroughs Machine” has been developed to hold business information.
Later, Charles Babge developed a machine known as “Analog Computer”, this device have provision for input data, storing information, performing arithmetic operations and printing out results.
In 1970’s, the fist small computers known as “minis” and “Midis” were available which used floppy disks, Unix for storage of information and display of information that has been stored in the system. These mini Computers include IBM PC, Electric typewriter, Word processor and Apple computers. This information technology development had improved communication, unlike before whereby information were delivered through post office, which consumed a lot of time. But today with aid of information technology you can reach somebody anywhere in a matter of a minute without much stress.
In those days, there was nothing like inter-com telephones that can linked various units or departments in an organization in order to save personal secretaries time and energy spent in running errands within the organization. As against the traditional office, the modern office has a lot of activities to perform with help of modern office machines.
Moreover, these information technology gadgets act as an important tool in secretary’s job and minimize likely fraud, which could arise from numerous mathematical calculations done in the office. And the result to a greater output than that of a secretary using manual equipment.
This development in Information technology has improved he effectiveness of secretaries in attaining their objectives in various organizations.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of this study is to determine the extent the modern office equipment has helped the secretary in the performance of her duties.
In solving this problem, the researcher would investigate the following areas:
a. The job satisfaction the secretary derives from the use of this modern office equipment in performing her duties.
b. The quality and accuracy of work done using the equipment.
c. The amount of time needed to perform a task using the equipment.
d. Reduction of cost brought about by the installation of these modern office machines.