Political Participation And National Development: A Case Study Of Enugu State 1999 To 2015

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The general: aim of the research work is to examine “Political Participation and National Development (A Case Study of Enugu State 1999-2015). Some of the specific objectives of this research work include: to find out whether political participation engender national development in Enugu State from 1999 to 2015. Did public opinion. engender national development in Enugu State from 1999 to 2015? For a successful completion of this research work, the researcher made use of both methods of data collection for information gathering... The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed with simple percentage while the hypotheses stated were tested with chi-square. The findings made includes: national participation engendered national development in Enugu State from 1999 to 2015,, public opinion engendered national development in Enugu State from 1999 to 2015. In conclusion, the Independent National Electoral Commission needs to improve in the area of electoral security. The electorates, election 0 totals and sensitive election materials require adequate security during elections. This will ensure the confidence of the electorate in terms of their safety being guaranteed, government much more than ever before needs to evolve credible strategies, to improve the resources base of the State in order to address the socioeconomic requirements of the People as postulated. This is the essence ‘of recruiting leadership at elections and this 18 the basis for which leadership is able to garner legitimacy and acceptability.



Title Page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Approval Page     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Certification -       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Dedication -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgement -       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Abstract               -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Table of content             -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii


1.1     Background of the Study -      -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Statement of the Study -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.3     Objectives of the Study -        -        -        -        -        -        6

1.4     Research Questions       -        -        -        -        -        -        6

1.5     Research Hypotheses     -        -        -        -        -        -        7

1.6     Significance of the Study -       -        -        -        -        -        7

1.7     Scope and Limitation of the Study   -        -        -        -        8

1.8     Definition of Terms       -        -        -        -        -        -        9

1.9     References -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        11


2.1     Political Participation    -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.2     Nigeria’s Political Party System       -        -        -        -        18

2.3     Legal and Institutional Framework including      

relationship with INEC -        -        -        -        -        -        19

2.4     Ideology and Issue Based Politics     -        -        -        ­-        27

2.4     Problems of Political Participation   -        -        -        -        38

2.5     Political Participation: A Catalyst For Nation               Development in a Democratic Society        -        -        -        -        44

References -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        52


3.1     Theoretical Framework -        -        -        -        -        -        56

3 .2    Research Design   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        63

3.3     Method of Data Collection      -        -        -        -        -        63

3.4     Method of Data Anaa1ysis -   -        -        -        -        -        64

References -          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        65


4.1     Population ofStudy       -        -        -        -        -        -        66

4.2     Determination ofSample size   -        -        -        -        -        66

4.3     Data Presentation          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        67

4.4     Test of Hypothesis        -        -        -        -        -        -        72

4.5     Discussion of Findings -        -        -        -        -        -        76


5.1     Summary of findings -   -        -        -        -        -        -        76

5.2     Conclusion -         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        77

5.3     Recommendations -       -        -        -        -        -        -        78

Bibliography -      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        80

Appendix   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        85

Questionnaire -     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        86


Chapter One


1.1     Background Of The Study

Political participation refers to the direct or indirect involvement of the citizens of a country in the governance of their country. Political participation can be broadly divided into two, namely, conventional and unconventional political participation (Efemini 2013). Conventional political participation is concerned with one’s involvement in political campaign, public hearing, recall, referendum, running for public office, voting in elections etc. while unconventional political participation has to do with one’s involvement in public protests, civil disobedience, political debates, community development, strike action, etc. political participation being an important paradoxical and delicate political theory, obliges individuals to form and support a given government or the implementation of a given policy based on certain grounds. It also obliges the same people to dissolve any government or oppose the implementation of any policy based on certain grounds too (Almondand Verba, 2010). This work attempts to show that politicalparticipation is an agent that provokes or speeds up significant changeor action in development since it is only through conventional andunconventional political participation that one can influence thedecisions, policies and other activities of the government for the goodof the people. Without political participation, there can be nomeaningful development in any country. This truth is evident / obviousin most contemporary societies especially in Africa where manycountries are underdeveloped. This under-development in Somecountries are due to marginalization of the people from active politicalparticipation and sometime apathy on the side of the people towardspolitical participation as this makes the leaders to do whatever they likesince no one questions them. But with active political participation ofthe people, they will be able to demand for what is due to them in termsof development which will include both human and infrastructuraldevelopment. Where the government fails to provide development, it isstill through active political participation that the people will be able tochange such a bad government and replace it with a good one. Thischange can either come through voting such government out duringelection or by revolution. Arowolo and Aluko (2011) stated thatthrough political participation citizens form and support a given government or the implementation of any policy based on certain grounds. The purpose of participation of citizens in the policy makingarrangement is to create sense of belonging and awareness necessaryfor the sustainability of policy despite the nature of such policy,consolidate democracy and engender good governance.

The importance of political participation to national developmentcannot be overemphasized as thereany democratic society that does not encourage political participation.Emphasizing the need for political participation, Gauba (2008) arguedthat:

Since most people desire economic development and the physicalimprovement of their infrastructure and environments, responsive

Governmentwill be such that seeks and promotes economicdevelopment. On its own, good governance depicts the degree to which institutions of a particular country (such as executive, legislature or judiciary) and process (such as the role of political parties in election) are transparent, accountable to the people and allow them to freely participate in decisions that affect their lives (Omoregbe, 2009).

This is simply because good governance must indeed democratize the process of decision making in a way to guarantee the involvement of the groups for which decisions are being made. For example, wealthy creation programme can only be potent and sustainable only if the affected group is involved at all levels of decision making process.

1.2     Statement Of The Problem

Many countries are faced with the problem of national development. In a democratic society, both the leaders and the people are collectively responsible for this problem of national development, while the leaders can be blamed for not adhering to the main objective of democracy.which is the prioritization of the ‘common good’ over personal interest, which in turn is made manifest in national development. The people onthe other hand, receive the greater share of the blame for their lack of interest in political participation, this apathy on the side of the people gives the leaders room to do whatever they want, however they want it and whenever want it, since nobody questions the policies and actions.

It is only through active and popular political participation that the people can checkmate the activities of the leaders and re-dire minds towards the pursuance of common good as against private interest, so as to enhance national development.

Political participation is seen as a panacea for development in a democratic society because, it makes policies legitimate, as it makes people to have a sense of belonging and can lay claim of ownership of such policies. It is through political participation that the citizens partake in the governance of their country, by so doing, they are able to make input in the decisions and policies of the government, applaud a government that is doing well and condemn/oppose a bad government the or even remove such government.

 1.3     Research Questions

The following research questions are stated for this st

1.       Did political participation engender political development in

Enugu State from 1999-2015?

2.       Did public opinion engender National Development in Enugu State from 1999 to 2015?

 1.4     Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to appraise political participation and national development focusing on Enugu State from 1999 to 2015.

The specific objectives include the following:

1.       To find out whether political participation engendered national development in Enugu State from 1999- 2015.

2.       To ascertain if public opinion engendered National Development in Enugu State from 1999 to 2015.

 1.5     Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are stated for this study:

Hypothesis One

Ho:   Political participation did not engendered national development in Enugu State from 1999-2015.

H1:   Political participation engendered national development in Enugu State from 19992015.

 1.6     Significance of the Study

This study may be of enormous benefit to the general populace. It will go to a great extent in enlightening them on the essence of effective political participation as well as its essence in national development.

The recommendations of this study will suggest ways to ensure effective political participation of the populace.

The recommendations of this study will suggest ways to ensureeffective political participation of the populace.

Student and other researchers willas well as widen their scopefrom the information contained in this study.

  1.7     Scope and Limitations Of The Study

This study on political participation and national development covers Enugu State from 1999 to 2015.

The researcher encountered diverse constraints in the process ofcarrying out this research study.

1.       Difficulty in Gathering Research Material:

There was difficulty in gathering the necessary information or materials necessary for the successful completion of this research study. This isdue to the fact that most of the respondents were either not on sit orwere uncooperative in providing the necessary information as regardsto their reward management practices.

2.       Time Constraints

Time also posed as a constraint to the successful completion of thisresearch study. The researcher had to combine the time for lectures andwork to carrying out this research study. Though it was not easy but shewas still able to carry out the research work.

3.       Finance:

There was not enough finance on the part of the researcher to completethis research study.

Irrespective of these constraints, the researcher was still able tosuccessfully carry out this research study.

1.8     Definition of Terms

SOCIAL EQUALITY: Social equality is a state of affairs in which allpeople within a specific society or isolated group have the same statusin n certain respects, often including civil rights, freedom of speech,

Property rights, and equal access to social goods and services.

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION:Political Participation can be defined as those actions of private citizens by which they seek to influence or to support government and politics

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Political Participation And National Development: A Case Study Of Enugu State 1999 To 2015