A company will have stated objectives, but the individual manager must interpret what company officials actually say and do. For example: chief executive financial officers (CFOs), backed by the law of the land, will usually stress their responsibility to the stockholders. But the company’s objectives are usually composites of many decisions, resulting in various cross-functional compromises. So in actual practice the CFO’s goal is to balance the objectives of a fair return on investment to stockholders, stable and satisfying employment for employees, satisfaction of customers and the community, and so forth.
In setting procurement’s functional objectives, the Purchasing Manager must be aware of the CFO’s (and accordingly, the company’s) objectives, and ensure consistency in constructing the specific objectives for the purchasing department. With increased focus on meeting customer needs more effectively, many enterprises have begun to evaluate the results of the entire supply chain in satisfying these needs. This has given rise to the concept of competition between supply chains rather than merely between companies. Consequently, the importance of supplier contributions to enterprise results has further increased expectations of the supply management organization.
The evolution of purchase planning system from a clerical task to a strategic value chain makes it a means of creating competitive advantages for organizations. Generally, this development happens slowly with no previous design and plan in organizations. Therefore, to mitigate risks of this change and to increase its effectiveness, this development process should be carefully structured and planned. In this paper, in order to achieve a purchase planning system transformation model, purchasing development models are used as a basic framework. By benefiting of organizational change concepts and theories, the reference model has been designed as a tool to assess the current purchase planning system development situation and the potential strategic growth path. Finally, relationships between purchasing content change elements development have been identified as a departure point to develop the purchasing transformation strategy. In the empirical research path, this exploratory research has an inductive approach and the strategy by which the research is conducted is grounded theory. Case studies are the chief tools for data collection and analysis.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
SCOPE OF THE STUY
LIMITATION OF STUDY
DEFINITION OPF TERMS
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
PURCHASE PLANNING CHAIN MANAGEMENT
HISTORY OF PURCHASE PLANNING FUNCTIONS:
THE ROLE, OBJECTIVES AND CONTRIBUTION OF SUPPLY CHAIN STRATEGIES TO CORPORATE AND STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS
EMPIRICAL LITERATURE REVIEW
HISTORY OF PURCHASING AND PROCUREMENT
FACTORS FOR PURCHASING
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
THE RESEARCH DESIGN
THE QUESTIONNAIRES DESIGN
SOURCES OF DATA
DATA COLLECTION METHOD
CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS OF DATA AND TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS
ANALYSIS OF DATA
TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Considering the increasing significance of purchasing role and with the idea that this function has the ability to influence profitability favorably, the way purchasing function develops within organizations over time has been a topic of great interest. The evolution of the purchasing function is well acknowledged in the literature. Departing from the passive, re-active clerical viewpoint of the 70’s, the purchasing function has the ability to develop itself in a strategic pro-active function contributing, as much as other business functions, to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages (Versendaal et al, 2005).Cavinato and Freeman (1990) in their studies declared that in today’s changing and dynamic global markets, organizations stressing on the high quality production must focus their purchase planning on planning, development and operation. They realized that purchasing groups of many organizations have been slowly developed without a specific plan in response.
In response to today's unprecedented economic uncertainty, supply managers have adopted a "wait-and- see" attitude. Many are wary of spending their company's most valued asset: cash. And since inventory is cash's evil stepchild, companies continue to aggressively reduce inventory levels. In fact, current inventory management practices have regressed beyond "Lean" and are anorexic. As a result, popular Christmas gifts, such as electronics and appliances, may be in short supply.
The Institute of Supply Management's Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) tells a strange and interesting story about today's supply chain management. The data suggest that today's organizations have deliberately whittled their inventories down to dangerously low levels.
At its surface, uncertainty is straight forward to manage. Factory physics, the science of manufacturing, teaches us that manufacturers have three buffers to manage variability in their businesses: capacity, time and inventory. It is clear when looking at the PMI that most companies are using only one of these buffers: time. ISM reports a long trend of contracting inventories with little or no noticeable increase or investment in capacity.
As a result, lead times for supplies gradually (and now dramatically) increased in the face of a steady trend of increased demand (new orders). The recent and striking increase in lead time is a reflection that much excess capacity is being put to use, leaving time as the only remaining buffer. Lead times have ballooned from 10 to 12 days to 53 days.
Purchasing is the act of buying the goods and services that a company needs to operate and/or manufacture products. Many people are ignorant of what purchasing is all about. “Purchasing” is the term used in industries, commerce, public corporations to denote the act of and the financial responsibility for procuring material, supplies and services. It simply describes the process of buying. However in a broader sense, the term involves determining the needs, selecting the supplier, arriving at a proper price, terms and conditions, issuing the contract or order, and following up to ensure proper delivery. It focus is to purchase or obtain materials in the right quantity, in the right quality, at the right price, at the right time, and from the right supplier and delivering to the right place.
Global markets are expanding beyond borders and re-defining the way demand and supplies are managed. Global companies are driven by markets across continents. In order to keep the cost of manufacturing down, they are forced to keep looking to set up production centers where cost of raw materials and labor is cheap. Sourcing of raw materials and vendors to supply the right quality, quantity and at right price calls for dynamic procurement strategy spanning across countries.
With the above scenario you find companies procuring materials globally from various vendors to supply raw materials to their factories situated in different continents. The finished goods out of these different factory locations then pass through different chains of distribution network involving warehouses, exports to different countries or local markets, distributors, retailers and finally to the end customer.
In simple language, managing all of the above activities in tandem to manage demand and supply on a global scale is Supply Chain Management. As per definition SCM is the management of a network of all business processes and activities involving procurement of raw materials, manufacturing and distribution management of Finished Goods. SCM is also called the art of management of providing the Right Product, At the Right Time, Right Place and at the Right Cost to the Customer.
Why SCM strategy is important for an Organization
Supply Chain Strategies are the critical backbone to Business Organizations today. Effective Market coverage, Availability of Products at locations which hold the key to revenue recognition depends upon the effectiveness of Supply Chain Strategy rolled out. Very simply stated, when a product is introduced in the market and advertised, the entire market in the country and all the sales counters need to have the product where the customer is able to buy and take delivery. Any glitch in product not being available at the right time can result in drop in customer interest and demand which can be disastrous. Transportation network design and management assume importance to support sales and marketing strategy.
Inventory control and inventory visibility are two very critical elements in any operations for these are the cost drivers and directly impact the bottom lines in the balance sheet. Inventory means value and is an asset of the company. Every business has a standard for inventory turnaround that is optimum for the business. Inventory turnaround refers to the number of times the inventory is sold and replaced in a period of twelve months. The health of the inventory turn relates to the health of business.
In a global scenario, the finished goods inventory is held at many locations and distribution centers, managed by third parties. A lot of inventory would also be in the pipeline in transportation, besides the inventory with distributors and retail stocking points. Since any loss of inventory anywhere in the supply chain would result in loss of value, effective control of inventory and visibility of inventory gains importance as a key factor of Supply Chain Management function.
Strictly, this project is a case study of the effective purchase planning management and profitability. The impact for efficient negotiation in purchasing function in manufacturing company cannot be over stated. This is because when fairly in contract management result from poor negotiation. The problem of the study therefore are as follow:
The following questions regarding the implementation of the Procurement planning guided the study:
Plan in place, and adhering to it?
The main objective of the study was to assess the critical implementation issues associated with the operationalisation of Procurement planning in health entities in the Selected manufacturing companies.
The primary significance of this study is for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Batchelor Degree in Purchase planning Management.
The secondary significance is also geared towards exploring the academic relationship between classroom theory and what is practically attainable in industries and government establishment thus the carefulness in choosing the research topic.
The third significance of the project is to help and guide the younger ones on what to do when writing project or carrying out any research.
The fourth significance of the project is to guide industrial purchasing s to effective and efficient negotiation to enable them to obtain the “best buy which is the ultimate goal of the purchasing function.
This research work is on the effectiveness of purchase planning management and profitability.
Despite the limited scope of this study certain constraints were encountered during the research of this project. Some of the constraints experienced by the researcher were given below: