THE ROLE OF BUREAUCRACY IN ACHIEVING GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES
(A CASE STUDY OF MINISTRY OF EDUCATION IMO STATE)
The Main thrust of this research is to ascertain the extent to which Bureaucracy has gone in achieving these government development objectives, using the ministry of education Imo state Nigeria as a case study. In the course of carrying out this study, survey method was used by the researcher to describe the functions of Bureaucracy in that ministry which has aided the achievement of these objectives. The instrument used in data collection was mainly questionnaire and Oral interview. Thus, the responses got were outlined by the researcher in a frequency table and simple percentage was used to analyze the data. The results of the analysis and interpretations reviewed that Bureaucracy constituted the major element of development in that ministry. The implication of the result is that Bureaucrats in the ministry of education Imo state are being used for the implementation of government development Objectives. At the end of the study some suggestions were made by the researcher to the government and its agencies; and that is; “that the ministry should work in accordance to the rules of bureaucracy in order to achieve the mapped-out objectives of the government as regards education”.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - IV
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents- - - - - - - VI
List of table (if any) - - - - - - - vii
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems - - - - 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - 3
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 4
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis - - - - - 5
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - 5
1.7 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 6
1.8 Limitation of the Study - - - - - 6
1.9 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 8
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - 9
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 9
2.2 Structure of Bureaucracy - - - - - 12
2.3 Actors of bureaucracy - - - - - 14
2.4 The role of bureaucracy in improving efficiency- 18
2.5 importance of bureaucracy structure - - 23
2.6 Summary - - - - - - - 25
3.0 Research Design and Methodology - - - 26
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 26
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - 26
3.3 Sources /Method of Data Collection - - 27
3.4 Population and Sample Size - - - - 28
3.5 Sample technique- - - - - - 29
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instrument29
3.7 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - 30
4.0 presentation and Analysis of Data - - - 33
4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 33
4.2 Presentation of Data - - - - - 34
4.3 Analysis of Data - - - - - - 37
4.4 Test of hypothesis- - - - - - 41
4.5 Interpretation of result(s) - - - - 46
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation - 48
5.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 48
5.2 Summary of Findings - - - - - 48
5.3 Conclusion- - - - - - - 49
5.4 Recommendation - - - - - - 50
References - - - - - - - 52
Appendix - - - - - - - - 54
Questionnaire - - - - - - - 55
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.4.1: Distribution of population according to cadre
Table 4.2.1: Age distribution of respondents
Table 4.2.2: Sex distribution of respondents
Table 4.2.3: Educational qualification of respondents
Table 4.3.1: Analysis of research question 1
Table 4.3.2: Analysis of research question 2
Table 4.3.3: Analysis of research question 3
Table 4.3.4: Analysis of research question 4
Table 4.4.1: Responses distribution for the hypothesis
Table 4.4.2: Chi-square (x2) distribution
Appendix IV: The chi-square table
Appendix v: Critical values of the F distribution
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
One attribute of all government is to execute laws and commands of the ruler through an administrative staff or body of officials. However, the appointment of these officials and the way they carryout their tasks differentiate one type of political structure from another and this system that ensures the rational management of large scale organization is called Bureaucracy”. Thus, the term bureaucracy originated from a French word “Bureau” Meaning (“Desk”) and it refers to a cloth covering the desk of the 18th century French monarchs. With time it became necessary to identify it as a form of government. Hence, bureaucracy emerged out of the organization’s need for order and precision and workers demand for impartial treatment.
The concept of bureaucracy was developed by a German sociologist named Max Weber between 1864-1920 when Germany was undergoing its industrial revolution. This in his own opinion
was to help Germany manage its growing industrial enterprises at a time when it was striving to become a world power, so he conceived an ideal type of bureaucracy exhibiting three major characteristics anchored firmly on a body of impersonal rules and regulations. The structure and functioning of the organization, the rewards of the incumbents and the protection of the officers. He also stated what leads people to obey authority; by saying that those who made the rules and those who obeyed them shared certain values and the key to understanding organization types was to understand the nature of the shared value.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Bureaucracy has been said to be an indispensable management device for operating a large-scale organizations, but it is pathetic to state that a lot of factors impinges the smooth running of this system in achieving government development objectives. This state of affairs has resulted to slow implementation of government development programmes in the ministry of education Imo State as a result of Red-Tapism or bottleneck, mismanagement of fund meant for educational programmes which sometimes leads to poor implementation of development policies; has been the order of the day. Furthermore, bribery and corruption had continued to hinder effective implementation of government laudable projects.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the role of bureaucracy in achieving government development objectives. Hence some other objectives include:
1. To ascertain the bureaucratic structure of the ministry of education, Imo State.
2. To identify the real actors of bureaucracy in the ministry of education, Imo State.
3. To ascertain how bureaucracy has aided in improving efficiency in the ministry of education Imo State.
4. To know how the bureaucratic structure of the ministry of education Imo State help in the achievement of educational objectives.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The researcher formulated some questions which according to her will be relevant in ascertaining the subject matter. However, the questions include:
1. What is the bureaucratic structure of Imo State ministry of education?
2. Who are the real actors of bureaucracy in the ministry of education Imo state?
3. How has bureaucracy helped to ensure that there is efficiency in Imo state ministry of education?
4. Has the bureaucratic structure of Imo State ministry of education really helped in achieving education objectives?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The researcher tried to put up some hypothesis to ascertain the truth of the research. Here; (Ho) implies the null hypothesis which is always negative in nature, while (Hi) signifies the alternative hypothesis, which is usually positive. Hence;
Ho: There is no significant relationship between bureaucracy and the achievement of government development objectives in the ministry of education Imo state.
Hi: There is significant relationship between bureaucracy and the achievement of government development objectives in the ministry of education Imo State.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study shall be of immense help to administrators in the ministry of education in correcting frequently occurring problems as a result of the bureaucratic structure of the ministry.
It will also help educational institutions in boosting academic performance. Again, corporate bodies and entrepreneurs that wish to use bureaucratic structure to run their organization will find the study valuable in their endeavours.
In summary, the study will serve as a reference material for future researcher on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of this study, the scope primarily focuses on the role played by bureaucracy in the ministry of education in achieving government development objectives. Due to the large nature of Imo State ministry of education which is the case study, the researcher narrowed down the study to the administrative section of that ministry.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the course of carrying out this research, the researcher was faced with a lot of challenges which in a way impeded the academic work. They include:
i. Financial constraints: Some times the researcher may lack money which she may need to get more text books and journals for reference purposes and again may not have enough money to pay for her transport to the ministry of education; this to some extent hindered the effectiveness of the study.
ii. Time: Another factor which posed as a threat to the smooth running of this research was time; because sometime, lectures are being jam-packed in the time-table that the researcher hardly visit the library and the location of the case study which will provide information she may require for this study.
iii. Unwillingness of staff to give out information: The researcher could not gather much information required for the research due to non-compliance and some non-challant attitudes of respondents.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of clarification and for the interest of novices in the field of administration, the researcher tried to explain some terminologies employed in the course of carrying this research.
BUREAUCRACY: McFarland (1929), defined bureaucracy as a system of organization and management in which roles, tasks and relationships among people and positions are clearly defined, carefully prescribed and controlled in accordance with formal authority.
ADMINISTRATION: It could be seen as the co-ordination of human and material resources with a view to attaining organizational goals and objectives through effective and efficient utilization of those resources.
DEVELOPMENT: This is defined as a process of sustained increase in the total income per capita accompanied by socio-economic environment.
OBJECTIVES: This refers to a group of set goals which is meant to be achieved within a given period of time.