MINIMUM WAGE AND WORKER’S PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA
This work tries to examine the impact of minimum wages on workers productivity in Nigeria. Public enterprises, with reference to Anambra State Board of Internal revenue. The study was borne out of the fact that workers are not adequately motivated in the organization. The study adopted survey design with a total population of 326 and a sample size of 180 which was determined through Yaro Yamane sampling Technique. Questionnaires and interview were the instrument used in generating data for the study. It was found out that there is a relationship between minimum wage motivates worker for higher productivity. It was also found out that the organization often motivates workers with wages incentives. The study concludes that human resource is a vital element in an organization which is the agent of productivity and every attention should be turned to motivating the workers so as to maximize organizational productivity. It was recommended that there should be a periodic wage increment for workers so as to be able to match the ever price rising commodities in the market. Workers should also be promoted as when due and all wages attachment should apply.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page - - - - - - - - - - i
Title - - - - - - - - - - --ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - - -iii
Certification - - - - - - - - - -iv
Approval - - - - - - - - - -v
Dedication - - - - - - - - - -vi
Acknowledgments - - -- - - - - vii
Abstract - - - - - - - - - viii
Table of contents - - - - - - - - ix
1.1 Background Of the Study - - - - - - -1
1.2 Statement of the Study - - - - - - -2
1.3 Research Question- - - - - - - - -3
1.4 Purpose of the Study--- -- - - - - -4
1.5 Significance of the Study- - - - - - - -4
1.6 Scope of the study- - - - - - - - 5
1.7 Limitation of the Study-- - - - - - -5
1.8 Operationalization - - - - - -- - -6
1.9 Organization of the Study- - - - - - - 6
2.1 Literature Review- - - - - - - - -8
2.2 Theoretical framework- - - - - - - - 24
3.1 Research Design- - - - - - - - - 26
3.2 Area of the study- - - - - - - - - 26
3.3 Population of the study - - - - - - - - 27
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques- - - - - - 27
3.5 Methods of data Collections- - - - - - - 29
3.6 Instrument for data Collection- - - - - - - 29
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument- - - - - - - 29
3.8 Validity of the Instrument- - - - - - - 30
3.9 Distribution and retrieval of Instrument- - - - - - 30
3.10 Method of Data Analysis-- - - - - - 30
4.1 Data Presentation- - - - - - - - 31
4.2 Analysis of Research question- - - - - - - 34
4.3 Interpretation of Results - - - - - - - 41
5.1 Summary- - - - - - - - - - 43
5.2 Conclusion- - - - - - - - - 43
5.3 Recommendations-- - - - - - - 44
References - - - - - - - - - - 46
Appendix I - - - - - - - - - 47
Appendix II - - - - - - - - - - 48
1.1 Background of the Study
For many decades, the image of an average Nigeria government workers has been very poor, it projects a pictures of an uncomplicated individuals, whose sense of responsibility has been dulled by frustration and negativism. An average Nigeria government workers or civil servant is habitually non-challant to his duties. He needs to be closely supervised before he could discharge his duties. Bad attitudes displayed by the workers include , habitual lateness to duty, constant absence from duty under fictions excuses, maligning, sabotage of official interest etc.
The researcher believes that those multi-furious bad attitudes of an average government worker is rooted in a popular adage that “a hungry man is an angry man”.
The exponent of scientific management Taylor and his followers-maintained that the basic motive of a man at work was economic. Money was seen as a principal motivation instrument. Wage incentives are motivational factors. According to Croft (1996) motivation can be defined as “impulses that stem from a within a person and lead him to act in a way that will satisfy to get reward for their effort. The exchange of labour for financial reward in the market in the heart of pay process. People do not put forward their best unless they get reward for their work. Ubeku,(1975) stated that, the payment of goods salaries and wages is fundamental to the increase in the prerequisite for effective performance. In order to motivate people to put maximum efforts, it is essential that their various needs especially as it concerns their wage and salaries be satisfies as far as practicable.
According to Papola(1970: 123) “a just minimum wage to maintain not only the life but the health and the vigour of the working people is a law of necessity and knows no other law”. Therefore, motivation and productivity are twin concept in organizational development.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Currently, the poor performance , lack of dedication and commitment of government worker have been a matter of concern and debate. How to improve the productivity of employees has been the topic of many seminars, symposia and conference. The reason for this trend, as well as appropriate avenue for the appointment of blame has formed the basis for the controversies. Many reforms in the public service a such as work ethics, transparency, dedication and commitment to duties are some of the ways of trying to improve productivity of the workers in the country.
According to Nwachukwu (1988:102)Nigeria people have always come with the impression that generally, Nigeria workers are lazy, sleepy, reluctant to act, unconcerned and deceitful in their approach; these workers are said to lack the zeal, the business and the momentum of hardworking people and generally, they dislike having anybody talk about efficiency, dedication, competence, determination and productivity of which characterise people in a production oriented society. In production oriented society, the employees strive to boost the morale of their employees with a view to eliciting positive attitude towards work. While the workers respond by fashioning ways of making their organization successful. In Nigeria, however there is inadequate stimulus to attract such responses, so the workers are still performing below average, morale still down and efficiency still nil. The problem therefore, lies in the low productivity of government workers in Oba Anambra state because.
· The management sees motivating their effort force as something not too important because they do not value their employees.
· They lack an enabling environment for work performance, poor incentive, tribalism, and sentiments, bureaucracy and quota system helps in contributing to poor performance.
· The management do not adequately motivate their employees giving rise to low morale among the workers.
1.3 Research Question
In bid to actualize the purpose of this study, the following question were raised;
1. What is the relationship between minimum wage and workers productivity in Anambra Board of Internal Revenue Awka.
2. To what extent is the minimum wage policy implemented in Anambra State Board of Internal Revenu Akwa.
3. How do workers get motivated through minimum increment in Anambra State Board of Internal Revenue Awka.
4. What other ways can workers in Anambra state Board of Internal Revenue be motivated so as to enhance their performance.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to examine the impact of minimum wage on workers productivity with reference to Anambra State Board of Internal Revenue. Other specific objectives include:
1. To find out the relationship between minimum wage and worker productivity in Anambra State Board of Internal Revenue Akwa.
2. To ascertain the extent of implementation of minimum wage policy in Anambra State Board of Internal Revenue Akwa.
3. To explore how workers get motivated through minimum wage increment in Anambra State Board of Internal Revenue Akwa.
4. To make recommendations on how to maximize workers productivity in Anambra State Board of Internal Revenue Awka.
1.5 Significance of the study
The importance of this study stems from the fact that the government workers play vital roles in nation development and sovereign existence of any country.
Therefore, the welfare and efficient performance of the government workers could be given priority attention by any successive administration (be it military or civilian administration). The benefactors of this study are:
· Workers: This will help the workers to be move devoted to their work and improve in place where they are lacking
· Future Research: It also enable future researchers to make use of this work for more finding and future reference.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study covers minimum wage and workers productivity in Nigeria. This work is restricted to Anambra State Board of Internal Revenue.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
Some limitations that were identified and encountered in the process of the study include:
v Financial Constraints: In running around to gather materials for the study, considering the economic meltdown, money and resources were involved which delayed the completion of this work.