Effect Of Manpower Training And Development On Staff Performance And Retention In Federal College Of Education

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ABSTRACT

Manpower training and development is one of the most important organizational dynamics. It constitute the pivot in which organizational survival is run. However, many organisations have either ignored it or treat policy and programmes in Federal College of Education, Zaria with a view to employees needs and the college needs. Impact of these training programmes on the skills, experience of the staff, using both primary and secondary data, the study, shows that, prior to this time before there was no clear cut, formal and documentation manpower training and development policy structure in F.C.E . It was in 2008, that a unit was erected to take care of staffs development Unit. The study also shows that the training programmes that are majorly emphasized in the college are rather too academic in nature. This includes the various study leaves, probationer leaves, and conferences, seminars and workshops. These training programs as reveals do not address some peculiar training needs on the Job. On the impact of the training programs,, findings shows that the various training programmes as available in F.C.E have not impacted positively in enhancing the skill, knowledge of the staff, their performance on the Job and services delivery. The ineffectiveness of these programs has also led to the problem of staff retention in the college, especially among the highly experienced senior academic staff. However, it was recommended that the college should emphasized on both on the-Job and off-the-Job training for staff of the college, also staff training should be seen as right of every staff, not a privilege as presently been practices in the college. Added to this, effective strategies should be adopted so as to properly evaluate the effect and impact of result of whatever training undergo by staff of the college. Finally, training should not be seen as a routine activity, but as an important aspect of personal management and it should be a constant and continuous exercise.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENT

 

 

 

 

Title page

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i

Declaration

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Certification

 

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Dedication

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Acknowledgement -

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List of tables

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List of figures

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Abstract

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Table of content

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.0

Background of the study -

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1.1

Statement of the Problem -

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1.2

Objective of the study-

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1.3

Hypotheses -

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1.4

Scope and limitation of the study-

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1.5

Significance of the Study -

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1.6

Research Methodology - -

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1.7

Operational Definition of concepts -

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CHAPTER  TWO:

LITERATURE

 

REVIEW

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THEORETICAL

 

 

FRAMEWORK

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

Introduction -

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2.2

Conceptual issues of Manpower Training/Development

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2.3

Manpower Training/Development Objectives/Needs and

 

 

 

Content-   -

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2.4

Theoretical Framework - -

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CHAPTER THREE: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND OPERATION

 

AND STRUCTURE OF F.C.E

 

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Introduction -

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Historical Perspective of F.C.E Zaria- -

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Operation and Structure of the College -

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CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

 

 

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Introduction -

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Test of Hypothesis one - -

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Test of Hypothesis two - -

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CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

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Summary - -

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Conclusion- -

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5.3

Recommendations-

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Bibliography-

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Appendixes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questionnaire for staff of F.C.E Zaria

 

Questionnaire for Student of F.C.E Zaria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.0        Background of the study

 

The role and importance of human resources in the long term viability of any business or non-profit making enterprises cannot be overemphasized. Although, other resources, such as financial, information, physical are also essential, but human resources are virtually boundless in the potential impact of the organization.

 

Manpower is the basis of all resources use and it is the indispensable means of converting other resources to man kind’s use and benefits. So how well we develop and employ human resources skills is fundamental in deciding how much we will accomplish as a nation. Manpower is the pivot of every human institution. Even in the developed and industrial nations of the world where the use of machines and technology is at an advanced stage, manpower is still very essential.

 

Organizations today face many challenges in the management of their human resources –challenges that ranges from constant changes in organizational environment, through unmotivated workforce to shortage of skills manpower even in the face of heavy unemployment syndromes. In the words of Onah (2003:1), what sets most successful organization apart is how they manage human resources.

 

 

 

 

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In the private sector, the ability to achieve and sustain competitive advantage lies within the work force. Without exception, what keeps executives up at night are decisions about human resources that are rather difficult and delicate? How to select and develop future leaders; how to reward good performance; How to control Labour costs, while still treating people fairly. Those challenges depend on the pressure organization face. This no doubt required adequate manpower planning, training and development. There is no doubt that in this advanced age of development and technological break through, manpower must be developed to meet the challenges of modern technology. Trained and well-developed manpower is the essential ingredient for efficiency and effectiveness in any human organization.

Unfortunately, this days, the overwhelming and pervasive role of manpower resources in organization seem to be compromise to the extent of misplacing its role in the achievement of organizational objectives many organization paid little or no attention to issue of training and developing adequate manpower for achieving organizational goal or objective.

 

An essential instrument for achieving organizational objective is the adequacy and effectiveness of available manpower. Any organization whether (informal or formal, private government) can only boast of

 

 

 

 

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effective operation, if it is bless with adequately well-trained and developed manpower.

 

In Nigeria, many organizations (whether government or private, profit oriented) have been deficient in their operations and the overall effectiveness due to the type or caliber of manpower they have, Federal College of Education , Zaria is not an exemption

 

The Federal College of Education (FCE) Zaria was established to train teachers at the N.C.E level. They also in collaboration with Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria train teachers at B.Ed level. To effectively perform its function, it required well trained developed, professional and dynamic manpower.

 

 

1.1        Statement of the Problem

 

Teacher’s education has in the last few decades received attention in Nigeria. Such cognizance is not unconnected with the recognition by the Nigerian education planners that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. In order to produce quality and professionally qualified teachers for the Nigerian educational system, the Nigerian

 

National Policy on Education (1998:3rd edition) holds that Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) as the minimum entry qualification into the teaching profession. Institutions designated to provide the required professional training for teachers at various levels is Colleges of

 

 

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Education, Faculties of Education, Institutes of Education, National Teachers Institute and Schools of Education in the Polytechnics.

 

Among these institutions is Federal College of Education (F.C.E.), Zaria established in accordance with the National policy on Education with the objective to provide highly motivated conscientious, and efficient classroom teacher for all levels of our education, encourage spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers, help the teachers to fit into the social life of the community and society at large and to enhance their commitment to national goals, provide professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable the teachers to changing situations, enhance teacher commitment to teaching profession. (Senior Staff, Condition of Service Handbook).

 

To achieve these objectives, the college required skilled and other qualitative lectures and other supportive staff. This also could be achieved through an effective and consistence staff training and development policies and programmes. Although the college has various staff training policies and programmes these training programmes hardly have any significant effect on the skill and knowledge and retention of the staff of the college. It also seem that the issue of staff training and development is treated with levity and neglect and there is that mis-conception of the aim of staff training as it is seen as a tool or means for

 

 

 

 

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staff promotion rather than seeing it from an holistic angle as a tool for staff development, maintenance for greater performance and retention

 

Thus, the question is could there be anything wrong with the staff training and development policies and programmes the college? What is the nature of manpower training and development policy and programs in the college? And are they relevant to the needs of individual staff and the College as a whole? Furthermore, how effective are these manpower training programmes? And what are their impact on the skill, experience and performance of the staff as well as effective service delivery in the college?

 

It is therefore, pertinent to know that these problems could be of a negative consequence, if they are not adequately addressed. Considering the important role and mandate of the College, (providing quantitative teachers for all levels of educational institution in the country), if those that are expected to train or produce teachers are not well trained and knowledgeable, there would definitely be a problem. Obviously the achievement of the objectives for which the College was established might be affected. As the popular Adage says, “a blind man (person) can not lead another blind man (person) the result is that both of them will fall into a ditch.

 

 

1.2     Objective of the study

 

 

 

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The main objective of this study is to examine the manpower training and development policy in Federal College of Education, Zaria, as it affects the staff performance and retention. .

 

Specific objectives include

 

  1. To ascertain the staff training policies and programmes in the college

 

  1. To ascertain if these training policies and programmes are in consonant with the present college needs.

 

  1. To examine the effect of the training programmes on the staff as it affects their skills, experience and quality in general.

 

  1. To examine the effect on staff performance, retention, as well as effective Service delivery in the college.

 

  1. To make suggestions as required with a view of ensuring a well trained skilled and developed manpower in the college.

 

 

1.3        Hypotheses

 

  1. Lack of a clear- cut manpower training and development policy objective is responsible for ineffective manpower training and development in FCE, Zaria.

 

  1. Ineffective manpower training and development has no significant effect on staff performance and retention as well as effective Service delivery in FCE Zaria.

 

 

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1.4      Scope and Limitations

 

The study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of manpower training and development in FCE, Zaria. This was done in view to assess its effects on the skill, knowledge, performance and staff retention. The time frame of the study is from 1999-2006.

 

A major limitation of this study is that other institutions are not included in the study. In other words, an extensive coverage of other higher institution is not done, due to time and financial implication which the researcher might not be able to afford.

 

Another limitation was that of difficulty in collecting or having access to some data or information relevant to this research work. This was due to the issue of confidentially which the public sector was known for. However, these limitations do not really affect the content of the research work. Notwithstanding if these limitations are avoided or eliminated; it could have enriched or added more value to the study.

 

 

1.5        Significance of the Study

 

The issue of manpower training and development has become a major agenda in public personnel Administration. The reason for this is not for-fetched; more public organizations are faced with a lot of challenges which requires specialist and professionals to handle. In many higher educational institutions in the country, those challenges have

 

 

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become night mire and management of these institutions had spent sleepless night on how to catch-up with the global wave or changes sweeping across institutions in the world.

 

Because of this global change in science and technology, the Nigerian policy on education have witness constant transformations. School curriculum and course contents are constantly being changed or amended to reflect the reality on ground. This invariably brought about the importance of re-defining the manpower training and development policies and programs, so that staff of these institution will be able acquire new skills, knowledge and experience to cope with these changes. This will also enhanced their ability to impact this knowledge into their students. Thus, the importance of undertaken a study of manpower training and development in Federal College of Education, Zaria is imperative.

 

Although, some studies have been carried out (i.e. Bala, 1992 Danjuma 1998, Garba 2000, Sani, 2002) none of them has examined the training policy on ground in relation to the presence needs in the College.

 

The findings in this study will also help the government, the college management and management of other higher institutions in policy making as regards manpower training and development.

The study is an academic requirement, as such, it would be of use and benefit to researchers (as individual, group and to organization). It

 

 

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will also serve as a reference point for studies, for both under graduate and post-graduate students who wish to carryout similar study.

 

 

1.6        Research Methodology

 

1.6.1 Research Design

 

There are different ways or methods of carrying out a research. In the field of social sciences, one or a combination of these methods could be adopted depending on the nature and types of research to be undertaken. In view of this study, the survey design was adopted. Survey method identifies a population of study and from this population a representative or sample was drawn for investigation and collection of data. This was done through questionnaire, interview and observation.

 

Ijaya (2000:22) viewed survey research as “a study which involves an investigation on entire population of people or items by collecting data from samples drawn from population and assuming that these samples are true representatives of the entire population.

 

 

1.6.2 Sources of Data

 

There are two major sources of data, which also indicate the types of data. They are primary and secondary data. Data were collected from these two sources in this research work.

 

 

 

 

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  1. Primary Data: Primary data, mostly referred to as a first hand data due to its originality from the source, was derived from questionnaire interview and observation. These three means of sourcing for primary data were employed in this research work. The questionnaires were drawn and distributed to randomly select academic and non-academic staff and management staff of the college.

 

The questions were designed to give room for open and close ended questions. The close-ended was in a two-way and scaling form. The close –ended questions afford the researcher the opportunity to control the type of responses desires from the respondents. The close-ended questions gave us a little control of what we expected from the respondents so that, they would not be beating about the bush”. The close-ended question does not restrict the respondents on what to say. It affords the respondents to say their mind without restriction.

 

Face- to- face interview was conducted with some top officials and staff of the college. This was made possible through interview schedule designed by the interviewer. Also in the course of interview, the researcher observed some facilities on ground in the college promises.

 

  1. Secondary Data: - These data were sourced form official documents and publications (i.e. Handbook of condition of services, files etc) of FCE, Zaria. Secondary data were also sourced from official publications of Federal Ministry of Education, Bureau of Statistics others

 

 

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include, Books, Journals/articles, paper presentations, Newspapers and other publications.

 

1.6.3 Population and Sample Size

 

The population of this study includes all the staff of the institution (Academic and non-academic) and the students. Statistic from the staff record indicates that there are 304 academic staff and 728 non - academic staff. From the non academic staff, 428 were senior staff while 300 are junior staff. Thus, the college has staff strength of 1032.

 

For the purpose

 

For the purpose of sampling, the entire staff of the college was stratified according to the cadre and nature of work.

 

The staff were stratified into academic and non academic and non academic staff. The non-academic staff was further stratified into junior and senior staff was further stratified into junior and senior staff. Records from the college shows that the total number of academic staff was 304, while that of non-academic staff was 728, comprising, 428 senior and 300- Junior staff.

 

In other to select the sample, 10% of the population of each of the students was selected.

 

In view of this, 30 academic staff, 43 senior non academic staff and 30 junior staff randomly selected thus, the total sample size for the staff is

 

 

 

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  1. in addition 22 students were randomly, selected to represent the study population. Although it might be argued that the student input in the study like this might not be necessary, however, the researcher found it desirable to include them as respondents, information in the quality of lectures and academic activities when is important for this work would be gotten from them.

 

Thus, the study sample size for the study is 125, including 30 academic staff, 73 non-academic staff and 22 students respectively. This number is believed to be adequate and representation to draw inference and generalize on the entire population.

 

Table 1.1 Populations and Sample Size

 

Staff

Population

Sample

 

 

 

Academic

304

30

 

 

 

Non-academic senior

428

43

 

 

 

Junior

300

30

 

 

 

Student

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22

 

 

 

Total

1032

103

 

 

 

 

 

1.6.4 Method of Data Analysis

 

After data has been collected, it is imperative to analyze this data, test the relevant hypotheses postulated or questions asked concerning the subject of investigation. This is possible using one or combination of

 

 

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statistical tools available in research. All data are raw and until they are presented and analyzed, they are of no value. The study made use of Tables, Frequency Counts and Percentages in presenting and analyzing the data collected of this study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.7 Operational Definition of Key Concepts

 

  • Manpower: This implied the total number of pensionable employees of Federal College of Education, Zaria.

 

  • Manpower Training and development: An extensive definition of this concepts has been done in chapter two (literature review) of this work. However, in this study, manpower training and development implied the organisation and co-ordination of knowledge, skills, experiences and attitude of the staff of F.C.E in view of making them perfect or professional in their various schedule or duty. It is aimed at enhancing their ability experiences and skills and aptitude for greater performance towards achieving the college objective.

 

  • Manpower Training and development objectives can be define as those results that the training hopes to achieve. Check chapter

 

 

 

 

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three of this work for details of manpower training and development objectives in F.C.E

 

  • Manpower needs here implied those shortfalls or deficiency identified at individuals staff level, schools or the college as a whole which the training programme. This implied the various strategies and technologies or designs put in place in the college which are directed towards improving or enhancing the knowledge skills, experience and aptitude of the workers toward greater performance.

 

  • Effective training and development policy and programs implied the achievement of the purpose to which the training policy and programs were design: Training policy or programs in this work is effective, if it is in consonance with the needs of the individual staff and the college as a whole.
  • Job performance in this work implied staff increased exhibition of skill and experience by staff of the college on their various schedules and duties. It implied greater professionalism on the job. For academic staff, it implied increase in quantitative lecturing or teaching and evaluation of students. To non-academic staff, it implied greater skills and experience in the performance of their duties.

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Labour turnover, here means the rate of which staff come and leave the college. It implies the rate at which the college lost its staff especially, highly skilled and experience one’s.

 

  • Service Delivery: This implied the way or rate at which the staff of the college performance their formal duties. It implied both

 

increased in Job performance and attitude to work and attending to worked to the customer.

 

The major customers of the academic staff are the student. Service delivery can be measure through their quality of teaching, evaluating students and their relationships with them. A good teacher is not an impostor or terror. It is one that is willing to serve his students as any time.

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