Effect Of Staff Training On Job Satisfaction In Kogi State Judicial Service

Get the Complete Project Materials Now! »

ABSTRACT

 

Despite various training courses attended by staff of Kogi State Judiciary, there has been low morale and no job satisfaction. The major objective of this research was to determine the effect of training on job satisfaction in Kogi State Judicial Service for the period of 2003 to 2012. Specifically, the study sought to find out the extent to which attendance of short/long term course/programmes, and acquisition of higher educational qualifications (Degrees/Diplomas) has affected job satisfaction of staff of Kogi State Judicial Service. The research hypothesized that “that short or long term training courses and acquisition of higher educational qualifications does not affect staff job satisfaction”. The expectancy theory of Vroom (1964) was adopted for this research. The Survey research design with sample size of 338 using stratified random sampling technique for questionnaire distribution was used for primary data collection complimented by interview. Secondary data was derived from official records, text books, journals and internet materials. Data analysis was done by the use of frequency tables, percentages and chi square statistical tool. The research found that staff valued training as opportunity for career growth and advancement but lack of proper administration of training in Kogi State Judicial Service has led to poor job satisfaction. It was recommended that the Kogi State Judicial Service Commission should put in place specific training programmes that would guide staff training rather than the current laissez faire attitude towards management of staff training. Also, adequate budgetary provision should be made yearly to reward training to ensure job satisfaction in Kogi State Judicial Service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

vi

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

Title page................................................................................................................................................ i

 

Certification......................................................................................................................................... ii

 

Declaration............................................................................................................................................ iii

 

Dedication............................................................................................................................................... iv

 

Acknowledgement............................................................................................................................. v

 

Abstract................................................................................................................................................... vi

 

Table of Contents................................................................................................................................ vii

 

List of Tables........................................................................................................................................... xi

 

List of Figures.......................................................................................................................................... xii

 

List of Appendices.................................................................................................................................. xiii

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1         Background to the Study………………………………………………….   1

 

1.2         Statement of the Research Problem.................................................................................... 3

 

1.3          Research Questions.................................................................................................................... 7

 

1.4         Objectives of the Study…………………………………………........             7

 

1.5         Hypotheses of the study……………………………………………….......  7

 

1.6         Significance of the Study………………………………………………….    8

 

1.7         Scope and Limitation of the Study……………………………………..          8

 

1.8         Plan of Study…………………………………………………………..…..    10

 

1.9         Operational Definition of Key Words……………………………………… 11

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

 

vii

 

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

 

2.1         Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 13

 

2.2         Concept and Objective of Training..................................................................................... 13

 

2.3          Concept of Training Programme and Policy.................................................................. 22

 

2.4.         Review of Theories of Motivation and Job Satisfaction.......................................... 26

 

2.4.1    Instrumentality Theory............................................................................................................... 28

 

2.4.2    The Content (Needs) Theories................................................................................................ 29

 

2.4.3    Process Theories............................................................................................................................ 31

 

2.4.4    Expectancy Theory...................................................................................................................... 32

 

2.4.5    Equity Theory.................................................................................................................................. 32

 

2.5.      Concept of Job Satisfaction...................................................................................................... 33

 

2.6.      Review of Empirical Studies................................................................................................... 40

 

2.7.    Theoretical Framework.................................................................................................................. 48

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

3.1    Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 52

 

3.2    Research Design................................................................................................................................. 52

 

3.3   Population and Sample size of the Study............................................................................... 53

 

3.4   Sampling Technique.......................................................................................................................... 55

 

3.5   Instruments of Data Collection.................................................................................................. 56

 

3.6    Administration of Instrument..................................................................................................... 56

 

3.7    Method of Data Analysis.............................................................................................................. 58

 

 

 

 

viii

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF KOGI STATE JUDICIARY

 

4.1.         Staff Training in Kogi State Judicial Service............................................................... 59

 

4.2         The Kogi State Judicial Service............................................................................................. 64

 

4.2.1    The High Court............................................................................................................................... 65

 

4.2.2    The Sharia Court of Appeal..................................................................................................... 67

 

4.2.3    The Customary Court of Appeal........................................................................................... 69

 

4.2.4    The Judicial Service Commission......................................................................................... 70

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES

 

5.1         Introduction.................................................................................................................................... 75

 

5.2         Return of Questionnaires......................................................................................................... 75

 

5.3         Summary of Interview Responses....................................................................................... 100

 

5.4         Test of Hypotheses...................................................................................................................... 103

 

5.5         General Discussion of Findings............................................................................................ 106

 

5.6         Summary of Findings................................................................................................................. 112

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ix

 

CHAPTER SIX

 

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

6.1          Summary............................................................................................................................................... 113

 

6.2         Conclusion.............................................................................................................................................. 115

 

6.3         Recommendations............................................................................................................................. 117

 

6.4         Suggestion for Further Study...................................................................................................... 118

 

References............................................................................................................................................. 119

 

Appendices............................................................................................................................................ 125

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1         Background to the Study

 

 

Training is one of the most important issues for human resource management. Through appropriate training, organizations can rely on competent and motivated employees, ready to meet technological and strategic requirements while employees expect to meet their needs and desires and satisfy them through training. Literature reveals that human resources represent the most important and variable factor of the production process, besides being a vital and strategic element for any organization whose target is to improve its productivity and competitiveness (Kazaz and Ulubeyli 2007). Thus, the implementation of policies, programmes and practices related to human resources, such as those regarding selection, recruitment procedures, training, incentives and assessment, are closely related to the overall performance of the organization, which implies that human resources become a beneficial source of competitiveness (Osman et al. 2011).

 

Different researches consider training as one of the most important issues in the field of human resources (Loosemore et al. 2003, Porret 2007). This is so because training is an essential factor whenever availability and suitability of skilled workers, able to adapt themselves to the technological and strategic needs of the organization, are required. On the other hand, training is also essential to ensuring that employees get the appropriate skills to carry out their work successfully (Loosemore et al. 2003, Osman et al. 2011). Organizations involved in effective training programmes are better equipped to retain workers more satisfied with their job and, consequently, more committed to the company. Moreover, while satisfied workers are generally willing to accept the objectives and values of the organization (Schmidt 2007), training that does not fulfil workers‟ expectations and needs could generate negative attitudes (Schmidt 2009). However,

 

1

 

 

Schmidt (2004) noted that …results of many studies indicate that the effects of job training go beyond those that might be considered traditional, that is, acquisition of knowledge, the improvement of skill and the increasing of efficiency in the work place.

 

Manpower training and retraining has received attention in most public service review in Nigeria. Such review range from the Udoji Commission up to the reforms of 1988 (Civil Service (Reorganization) Decree No. 43 of 1988) which lifted training from the position of neglect to that of high priority by providing for the establishment of a training and welfare section in the Personnel department of each Ministry. The Udoji commission sought to create …..a service where concrete performance in the achievement of pre-

 

determined or organizational goals and target is the criteria for advancement and not seniority, tribe, language or sex of the officer concerned….a service that constantly

 

updated and keeps itself abreast of the latest techniques and advance in public management…(Imaga 2003:79)

 

One of the potent factors identified by the various public service reviews as militating against the evolution of a result oriented public service is inadequate training. The Public Service Rules (2008) made it mandatory in Chapter 2, Rule 020702(a) that “there shall be structured and sustained training for career progression in the service including continuous professional training and development”.

 

Training therefore, is a process of preparing or being prepared for desired standard of efficiency and behavior expectation by instruction and practice. It is an attempt to improve the performance of employees through learning usually carried out to change attitudes, increase their skills and knowledge. Proper training programmes and policy help to develop skills and to increase the morale of workers leading to job satisfaction.

 

 

 

2

 

 

The importance of training in an organization in accordance with relevant public service rules and scheme of service, could be argued to include among others, the preparation of staff for advancement in their fields or promotion to higher levels of work, recognition and responsibility; promotion of job satisfaction and maximization of staff productivity.

 

The Judicial Service Commission is an administrative body charged with recruitment, selection, promotion, training and discipline, among other functions, in respect of staff in the judicial service of government. The establishment of the Commission and its responsibilities and functions are set out in Section 2(1), Part II of the Third Schedule of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.

 

Under the provisions of the said Constitution as amended and the Kogi State Judicial Service Commission Regulations, (2007), the Kogi State Judicial Service Commission, is expected to formulate policies, programmes and service rules/regulations that guide the operation and function of the Judicial service so as to ensure uniformity of administrative actions in each arm of court in the Kogi State judiciary. By the provision of the Kogi State Judicial Service Regulations (2007), the judicial Service Commission is expected to give policy direction as it may deem necessary. In view of the foregoing background, this research intends to examine the effect of training on job satisfaction in Kogi state judicial service.

 

1.2         Statement of the Problem

 

 

Many organizations have found it very important to invest on employees through training to improve employee proficiencies so that they can acquire a greater return in human capital investment through increased job satisfaction, commitment and high employee retention. The world is constantly shifting such that institutions of all types have to adapt to external and internal changes for their own survival (Cummings and Worley 2005).

 

3

 

 

However, understanding and influencing the human behaviour require knowledge of human needs. The feelings that a worker may have that his important needs are satisfied by the work he does determine the worker‟s morale.

 

The judicial arm of government is saddled with the responsibility to administer justice in society to all citizens without fear or favour but this can only be achieved with a satisfied workforce who is well trained, motivated and up to date in their knowledge and skills in order to deal with changes in the environment. Despite various training courses attended by staff, there has been low morale and dissatisfaction. This research is therefore confined to the dismal effort at management and reward for training and its attendant workers job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in Kogi State Judicial Service.

 

A memo from the Chief Registrar, High Court, dated June 24, 2008 with reference no. CR/COR/CJ/24/VOL. II/67, to the Chief Judge and Chairman of the Kogi State Judicial Service commission, noted with concern the spate of applications flooding his office requesting for promotion, change of cadre or normalization of appointments, all based on acquisition of additional qualifications/certificates which are not relevant to the training needs of the judicial service. According to the memo, employees have continued to go for one form of training course or the other to improve them-selves by getting additional qualifications for the purpose of promotion and career growth in the judicial service without recourse to any training needs, budgetary provisions for training and existence of vacancies. This development, the memo asserts, has adversely affected job satisfaction and staff morale. The memo concluded that:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

…in order to curb the frustration in service and indiscriminate acquisition of certificates without commensurate staff placement and utilization and to make training relevant to area of job needs of the judicial service, there was a need to send out a circular to all staff to intimate them on the proper training policy for acquisition of additional qualifications in line with the scheme of service etc as a way forward in the new direction of due process.

 

It is not that the Kogi State Judiciary has not been releasing and allowing its staff to attend one form of training or the other, but over the years there has been no systematic approach to training in the Judicial Service. Staffs have embarked on various course of study in institutions of learning without recourse to official approval or the relevance of such courses to present job or area of training needs of the judicial service. This state of affairs has persisted despite earlier circular on the subject to all staff in 1991, with reference No. SCR/596/Vol.I/18. The said circular observed with concern the trend of officers going on courses of training not related to their cadre or present job and stressed that training should be rationalised to satisfy the need for increased efficiency and effectiveness on the job rather than regarding training as a welfare scheme for self development alone. It went on to warn that officers should not be released henceforth for training simply to enable them acquire certificates and additional qualifications alone but that training should be systematic, progressional and geared primarily at developing skills, knowledge and attitudes immediately relevant to an officers‟ job or warranting future conversion for career progression upon attainment of position of certain seniority in the cadre.

 

However, each staff that had admission for any course of training on their personal effort would proceed without recourse to management‟s approval and release, irrespective of relevance of the course to their present job. Apart from the general training policy and programme in use in the Public Service and scheme of service alluded to in the memo that covers all existing cadre of service, there has been no attempt to specify training

 

5

 

programmes peculiar and applicable to Kogi State judicial service to guide, regulate and

 

deal  with  the  problem  of  indiscriminate  acquisition  of  certificates,  and  it  seems  no

 

machinery has been devised for maintaining continuity of administration of training. For

 

example, both Benue and Kwara states out of which Kogi state was carved out have their

 

training policy and specifically identified area of training needs peculiar to the judicial

 

service.  Furthermore,  by  a  circular  with  reference  No.MAO/TRA/2/Vol.1/209  dated

 

22/02/1995, the Kogi state executive arm of government gave criteria for selection and

 

releasing staff for specific courses in specific need areas. Each year, the criteria that saw

 

few officers that went for the National Judicial Institute (NJI) seminar/workshops were

 

not explicit but mostly based on other considerations rather than training needs.

 

 

Report of the impact assessment of NJI training programmes on staff of the Nigerian

 

judiciary (2011:3) noted that

 

 

there were significant numbers of staff who had not participated in any form of training despite having put in several years of service in the judiciary. This also calls for the respective judiciaries to create a checklist of nominees for trainings and to keep track of this by nominating fresh participants to participate in trainings in each workshop rather than recycling the same participants.

 

Some researches highlighted the fact that supporting staff seldom get training or the

 

opportunity  for  their   development.   (DFID   Nigeria‟s  Security,    Justice   and   Growth

 

programme  report,  2005).   Investments  on  training  were  selective  and  limited,  and

 

generally geared towards the training of senior management teams and judicial officers.

 

This research therefore is to examine effect of staff training on job satisfaction in Kogi

 

State Judicial Service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

1.3 Research Questions

 

 

This research accordingly seeks to answer the following research questions:-

 

 

  1. To what extent has attendance of short/long term course programmes, seminars, conferences and workshops affected the job satisfaction of staff of Kogi State Judicial Service?

 

  1. To what extent has acquisition of higher additional qualifications (degrees/Diplomas) affected job satisfaction in Kogi State Judicial service?

 

  1. What are the factors militating against staff training programmes in Kogi State Judicial Service?

 

1.4         Objectives of the Study

 

 

The main objective of this research is to examine the effect of staff training on job satisfaction in Kogi State Judicial Service. Specifically, the research seeks to;

 

  1. Examine the extent to which attendance of short or long term course programmes, seminars, conferences and workshops have affected job satisfaction of staff of Kogi State Judicial Service.

 

  1. Determine the extent to which acquisition of higher additional qualification (Degrees/Diplomas) affected the job satisfaction of staff of Kogi State Judicial Service.

 

  1. Identify the factors militating against staff training programmes in the Kogi State Judicial Service?

 

1.5         Hypotheses

 

In order to facilitate analysis and understanding of the research, the following hypotheses are advanced.

 

7

 

 

 

 

Hoi

 

 

 

 

That short or long term training courses does not affect staff job satisfaction in the Kogi State Judicial Service.

 

 

Hoii

 

 

That acquisition of higher educational qualification does not affect staff job satisfaction in Kogi State Judicial Service.

 

 

1.6         Significance of the Study

 

 

 

Job satisfaction has been studied in a broad array of professions; there is a measurable positive correlation between job training and its effects on job satisfaction. This is demonstrable across broad array of career fields. Most studies have concentrated on such careers as managers/administrative staff, (Vasudevan,(2014), Sharon et al, (2014), education institutions/academics, banking and those who work in the industrial trades (Adesola et al, (2013),Joaquin et al (2012), Alina (2010), Hamza (1999) as well as health care providers, (Hong et al, 2004). The findings are reasonably consistent across time. However, not much literature exists on training and its effect on job performance and job satisfaction in the judiciary, the judicial service generally and Kogi State Judicial Service in particular.

 

Study of training in the judiciary has mainly focused on senior management team and judicial officers (DFID Report, 2005). This has created a dearth of reliable information on the subject of training in the judiciary generally and Kogi state in particular. This research focus was on judicial officers on the lower bench as well as the supporting staffs whose training and job satisfaction fall on each management of each court in the Judicial Service. It broadens the research agenda of job satisfaction to the judiciary sector and would ameliorate the drought of literature on job satisfaction in the judicial service. This

 

 

8

 

 

study therefore fills a gap in knowledge of staff training and job satisfaction by adding to existing body of knowledge on the subject. The research will also serve as reference material for further research in the area of the subject and for human resource managers, administrators and students.

 

1.7         Scope and Limitation of the Study

 

 

The scope of this research is confined to Kogi State Judicial Service in terms of coverage area and in the context of effect of training on job satisfaction. The provision of training opportunity in the workplace is regarded as a step to job satisfaction because a job is seen as a means to meeting needs and all behaviours are geared towards action that would bring about rewarding such needs.

 

The research covers in time scope, a period of ten years, from 2003 to 2012, which coincides with when Kogi State University, Anyigba started their Law Course and drew 37 of their pioneer law students from the Kogi State Judicial Service and more in subsequent sessions. It also coincided with the period when Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja and the Federal Polytechnic, Idah introduced full and part-time Certificate and Diploma Courses in Law, Public Administration, Accounting and Auditing as well as other programmes in other social disciplines. These courses are for short or long durations ranging from one year to six years. Many staff from various directorates left for various (diploma/certificate/degree) courses at the University and the Polytechnics. They range from Clerks (from different cadres), Court Registrars, Area Court judges, Inspectors of Area Court to Executive Officers (from different cadres), to Computer Operators, Court Attendants, and Bailiffs.

 

This period from 2000 to 2007, most especially witnessed mass attendance in these courses due to the close proximity of staff duty stations to the learning centres and their

 

9

 

 

being encouraged by an administration that acquiesced with laissez faire disposition to staff training. Furthermore, within the period under review, there were three successive changes in the leadership of the Judiciary. The new leadership had to contend with problem of low staff morale and low job satisfaction, arising from lack of promotion/advancement, conversion etc after training as noted in the Chief Registrar‟s memo.

 

The limitation of method employed in conducting this research would not allow for generalization to all judiciaries in Nigeria. In other words, the limitations of the application of findings are mainly in terms of coverage. The research covers only one State Judicial Service (Kogi State) out of thirty six states and the federal capital territory as well as the Federal Judicial Service that makes up the Nigeria Judiciary. This has a serious consequence for the general applicability of the findings across the Nigeria Judiciary which does not share the same problem in training matters and job satisfaction. This work acknowledges this limitation.

 

The limitation of our data collection methods shows that no data collection technique is error free as each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. This shortcoming is also acknowledged. Perhaps the most debilitating limitation was inadequacy of data due to reluctance to give access to official records/files because some respondents (both management and junior staff) felt providing certain information on training and job satisfaction was implicative. However, the researcher was able to overcome this limitation by convincing them after thorough explanation that it was purely for academic exercise and such information would be treated confidentially.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

1.8          Plan of the Study

 

This research consists of six chapters. Chapter one deals with general introduction and background to the study, statement of problem, objective of the study, its significance, hypothesis, the scope of the study and limitation, the plan of the study and definition of relevant terms. Chapter two sets out to review related literature on the subject and the theoretical framework for the research. In chapter three, the methodology employed for the research is analyzed while chapter four x-rays the background of the case study; that is, the Kogi State Judiciary.

 

Chapter five is devoted to data presentation and analysis using frequency tables and simple percentages. Test of hypotheses was done using chi – square statistical tool to determine the degree of association between training and job satisfaction in the judicial service of Kogi State. Finally, chapter six summarizes the findings, conclusion and makes recommendations.

 

1.9          Operational Definition of Key Words

 

 

The key words are Training, Training Policy, Job satisfaction and Judicial Service.

 

 

1.9.1     Training

 

 

In this research, training mean learning opportunity for acquisition of specific skills and or knowledge through attendance at short or long duration training courses in educational institutions leading to acquisition of qualifications that would enhance career growth. Training programmes also includes seminars, workshops, and induction by other professional chartered bodies.

 

Training policy in this research refers to the rules and regulations that prescribe relevant criteria for staff selection and release for attendance of various short or long duration

 

11

 

 

courses in educational institutions considered vital and relevant to the job needs in the judicial service of Kogi State.

 

It is a form of regulatory policy that sets standard and values to restrict the activities of staff in training matters in order to prevent undesired consequences of their action.

 

1.9.5    Job Satisfaction

 

 

Job satisfaction in this research means the feeling that an employee has about his/her job. It refers to the extent to which staff in Kogi State Judicial Service likes or dislikes their jobs on the basis of perceived recognition and role, based on the characteristics of the job itself, benefits, need satisfaction and contentment. In other words, this includes satisfaction with the work itself, promotion, pay, and recognition in status, all derivable after attending or not attending a course of training about which staff have affective responses. Since job satisfaction is attitudinal, it follows that not all satisfied employees will manifest such satisfaction behaviourally. Nonetheless, positive and favourable attitude towards the job is indicative of job satisfaction, while negative and unfavourable attitudes towards the job presuppose job dissatisfaction.

 

1.9.6     Judicial Service

 

 

In this research, judicial service means Kogi State Judicial Service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

 

Table 3.1 Staff Population Distribution in Kogi state Judiciary........................................ 54

 

 

Table 3.2 Questionnaire Distribution to each section of KSJS............................................. 57

 

 

Table 5.1 Rate of Questionnaire Return........................................................................................... 76

 

 

Table 5.2 Ages of Respondents............................................................................................................ 76

 

 

Table 5.3 Gender of Respondents....................................................................................................... 77

 

 

Table 5.4 Marital Status of Respondents........................................................................................ 78

 

 

Table 5.5 Nature of Employment........................................................................................................ 79

 

 

Table 5.6 Years of Service....................................................................................................................... 80

 

 

Table 5.7 Highest Qualification Obtained..................................................................................... 81

 

 

Table 5.8 Types and Number of Training obtained since Employment........................... 82

 

 

Table 5.9 Importance/Value of Training as Incentive............................................................... 83

 

 

Table 5.10 Relevance of Short/Long Term Training to Job

 

Satisfaction........................................................................................................................................................ 84

 

 

Table 5.11 Availability of Training Programme/Policy.......................................................... 86

 

 

Table 5.12 Self Seeking of Training Opportunity....................................................................... 89

 

 

Table 5.13 Management Reward for Training.............................................................................. 91

 

 

Table 5.14 Promotion due to number of Training...................................................................... 93

 

 

Table 5.15 Satisfaction with Job Itself............................................................................................. 94

 

 

xi

 

Table 5.16 Satisfaction with the Job benefits................................................................................. 95

 

 

Table 5.17 Job‟s Capacity for Achievement/Potentials........................................................... 96

 

 

Table 5.18 Leaving Judicial Service for Alternative Better Paid

 

Job........................................................................................................................................................................ 97

 

 

Table 5.19 Improved Condition of Service....................................................................................... 98

 

 

Table 5.20 Response Pattern to Interview........................................................................................ 100

 

 

Table 5.21 Chi-Square Test for Hypothesis I.................................................................................. 103

 

 

Table 5.19 Chi-Square Test for Hypothesis II............................................................................... 104

 

 

 

 

 

 

Download Effect Of Staff Training On Job Satisfaction In Kogi State Judicial Service Research Materials

Share On Social