SCIENCE EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT
(FARBICATION OF WASH BOTTLES)
Wash Bottle is a laboratory equipment which is adopted in the laboratory for the washing, cleaning and rinsing of lab glass wares before, during and after an experiment is carried out. It consists of a flexible resilient material container (bottle) having a mouth, the detachable mouth cover, a nozzle, a value seat and a nozzle cover. The container carries the washing liquid and can be squeezed due to its flexibility. The mouth cover allows refilling of the bottle and covers it after refilling. The nozzle projects from the inside of the container through the mouth to the exterior. It allow the flow if washing liquid from the container to the appropriate place of use. It is being held by a value seat. The valve seat also prevents the washing liquid to avoid spilling on the ground or causing chemical burns on hand. The nozzle cover narrows the water outlet and directly it property. As the container carrying the wash liquid is squeezed (pressed inside), pressure is exerted on the container outwards through the nozzle. The force is proportional to the pressure exerted. Then the nozzle cover narrows the flow of liquid coming out from the cover so that it can be applied directly to the desired point or area. This equipment is adapted fro use due to its convenient features in providing a more easy and accurate washing with no harm on the user.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - vi
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the study - - - - 1
1.2 Aims of the study - - - - - - 4
1.3 Significance of the study - - - - 5
1.4 Statement of the Research problems - - 6
1.5 Limitations of study - - - - - 7
2.1 Literature review - - - - - - 8
2.2 Definition and description of wash bottle - 9
2.3 Washing as a scientific function - - - 11
2.3.1 Liquid/liquid wash- - - - 13
2.3.2 Liquid/solid wash - - - - 15
2.3.3 Liquid/gas wash - - - - 16
2.4 Washing materials - - - - - - 17
2.5 Functions and Application of wash bottles - 18
2.6 Types of wash bottles - - - - - 20
3.0 Material and methodology - - - - 22
3.1 Materials - - - - - - - 22
3.2 Diagram of wash bottles - - - - 23
3.3 Description of the compound parts of a wash bottles 24
3.4 Fabrication of wash bottles - - - - 27
4.1 Results - - - - - - - - 30
5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation - 33
5.1 Discussion - - - - - - - 33
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 34
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - 35
References - - - - - - - - 36
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Great effort and expense are currently required for the maintenance and development of science equipments in the laboratory. These equipments are referred to the various tool and equipment used by scientist working in a laboratory. An important type of equipment which will be used in the report of this project is the laboratory glassware. Examples of this glassware are burettes, beaker, test tubes, conical flask pipette etc. These equipments are generally used either to perform an experiment or to take measurement and gather date/results from the experiment. But a more sophisticated equipment is generally called a scientific instrument.
The maintenance and development of these scientific equipments are indispensable for scientific research. According to statistics, over 70% of the Nobel Prizes in physics, chemistry, Biology and medicine were achieved with the help of different types of instruments and equipments both normal and advanced. And the advancement of modern science and biotechnology will more and more depend on the development of scientific equipments and instruments. Today, scientific equipments and instruments are under rapid development in the fields of spectrum, chromatography, dectrochemisty biochemistry, united technology and microbe (Abdul & Gibson, 1991).
One of the primary ways of maintaining the laboratory equipments is through the availability of “wash bottles”. This wash bottle has the name “wash” and “bottle”. It is a scientific equipment made of polyethylene which has a flexible solvent resistant petroleum-based plastic. It is usually filled with water. Its function is to wash the laboratory equipments as washing is part of maintenance and development processes. The wash bottles contain water which is mainly de-ionized. The essence of the de-ionized water prescribed for use in wash bottles is to aid in filtration (washing of precipitate, etc) The wash bottles provide water which is used in washing of laboratory equipments and most especially, for washing of laboratory glassware (Brinton, 1987).
The provision of an equipment which is uniquely adapted, and which is effective for such purpose of delivery (water) liquid without the cleansing liquid either leaking onto the hands or otherwise by-passing the stream when applied for use gave rise to the wash bottles we have today. The wash bottles do not only contain water. It can also contain other chemicals apart from acetone or ether. This is because these two chemicals tends to reach with the poly ethylene chemical, used in the production of the rubber bottle of the wash bottles. Other chemicals apart from the two listed above and which can be used in washing of laboratory equipment may also be stored in a wash bottle. It is strictly advised that the wash bottle be labeled for safety and other purpose (Brinton, 1987).
1.2 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The study aim at the fabrication of wash bottles using some existing materials for the storage of de-ionized water or any other type of chemical which can be used in washing rinsing of laboratory equipment especially the laboratory glassware.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significant of the study which based on the fabrication of wash bottles centers on the need to maintain and develop laboratory equipments. It maintains and prepares the lab equipment such as the laboratory glassware for use again after a previous use of such equipments has been made.
The significant of the study which based on the fabrication of wash bottle is seen by the special unique feature of wash bottles which designed or fabricated in such a way that the liquid inside the wash bottle will be easily pushed out and properly directed to the area it is