COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BACTERICIDAL EFFECT OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) AND GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) ON GASTRO ENTERIC BACTERIA
The anti microbial effectiveness of extract garlic, ginger and lime on Salmonds spp, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The plant extracts showed varied activity on the test organisms with garlic showing stronger antimicrobial activity of 150mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 100mg/ml on salmonella, ginger was totally ineffective at the highest concentration of 500mg/ml on all the organisms. This study confirms the anti microbial potential of the test bacteria and suggests the possibilities of employing them as household remedies to some bacterial infections.
1.1 Background of Study
The acquaintance with different ethnic groups has contributed to the development of research on natural products to the increase in knowledge about the close relationship between the chemical structure of a certain compound and it’s biological properties, and to the understanding of the animal/insect plant. Interrelation, for these reasons, medicinal plants are important substances for the study of their traditional uses through the verification of pharmacological effects and can be natural composite sources that act as new anti infection agents. The microbial infections are mortality of developed and developing country, although a number of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment and management of infectious disease. In addition, misuse of the antibiotics which can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance is also major health concern. Therefore, there is a perpetual need to exploit new bioactive principle with high safety index (Degand, et al, 2008).
Historically, medicinal plants have been a source of novel drying compounds. Plant derived products have made large contribution to human health and well being. Green pharmacy may become the base for the development of medicine by providing a pharmacopoeia which could be used for the development of new drug with novella mechanisms of action. Many scientist across the globe have reported antimicrobial properties of several medicinal plants but still a very meager portion of this tremendous potential drug-repertive has been scientifically screened (Barbuddhe, et al, 2008).
The plants extracts possessing bioactivity are usually tested for short or long term toxicity in animal models: Nontoxic extracts possessing bioactivity are usually tested for short or long term toxicity in animal models.
Nontoxic extracts possessing good bioactive principles may provide potential antimicrobial leads.
Ginger: Is an member of the family zingiberacae; a small family with more than 45 genera, and 800 species; it’s scientific name is zingiber officinal (Z officinale) it is an erect perennial plant growing from one to three fect in weight, it’s stem is surrounded by the sheathing base of the two ranked leaves. A clublike spice of yellowish, purple lipped flowers has greenish yellow bracks which rarely flowers in cultivation (Chester, et al, 1944).
Ginger is truly a world domestic remedy. It is also used in India and other countries like the ancient Chinese where the fresh and dried roots were considered distinct medicinal products. Fresh ginger has been used for cold induced disease, nausea, asthma, cough, colic, heart palpitation, swelling, dyspepsia, less of appetite, and rheumatism. In short for the same purpose as in ancient China. In nineteenth century ginger serves as a popular remedy for cough and asthma when the juice of fresh ginger was mixed with a little juice of fresh garlic was mixed with a little juice of fresh, garlic and honey. A paste of powdered dried ginger was mixed with a little honey, tapped off with a pinch of burnt peacock feathers to alley nausea.
Garlic (Allium Sativum) (A sativum) belongs to the family alliaceas. It’s close relative include the onions, shallot, and leek. It has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purpose. It has a characteristic purger, hot, flavour that mellows and sweetens considerable with cooking. The head of garlic (the most commonly used plant part) comprise numerous discrete cloves whereas the leaves and steam are sometime eaten, particularly while immature and tends. Garlic has been used as medicine in many cultures for though of years, dating as the time that Egyptian pyramids. It is also claimed to help prevent heart disease including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and to improve the immune system as well as protection against cancer. A daily close of 1ml.kg body weight of garlic extract for six months can result in significant reduction n oxidant (free radical) stress in the blood of patients with atherosclerosis and cholesterol circulating n the blood stream. Garlic ability to prevent these oxidation reaction may explain some of its’ beneficial effects in athenosclerotic cardiovascular disease (Alterman et al, 2005).
The present study was aimed at determining the mvitro antibacterial activity of garlic and ginger rhizomes ethanolic extract on the isolates of Gram-negative organisms and Gram-positive with the view to finding alternative means of treating infection caused by them.
To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomia infection.