MICROBIAL EVALUATION OF RAW MILK FROM A DAIRY FARM
Microbial evaluation of twenty samples of raw milk from a dairy farm (Emene Fulani cattle farm Enugu State). was carried out using five method: direct microscopic count nutrient agar count, Blood agar count, MacConkey agar count (Coliforms only) and Acid fast bacilli staining was done to assay for the presence of the Tubercle bacillus. The bacterial was were as follows: direct microscopic counts ranged from 9.0x 105 to 9.5 x 107 counts on Nutrient agar ranged from 9.0 x 104 to 8.0x 105 counts on blood agar ranged from 7.0x 104 to 9.8x10 while counts on MacConkey agar ranged between 5.0x 102 to 5.0 x 101. The Acid fast bacilli staining did not show a single bacillus, an indication of tubercle free. The gram staining result indicate single chains clusters gram positive bacilli and gram negative bacilli which are characteristics of Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp lactobacillus spp and coliform. It is suggested that milk maids and milk processors should endeavor to wash the udder of the cow, sterile their equipment and containers as well as improving their personal hygiene during milk collection. these will contribute to the quality of products in our milk industries as well as the good health of man especially the Fulani cattle rearers that drink without pasteurization.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Milk is defined as a secretion of mammary gland of female animals. It is an exceptionally good source of protein which is of a high biological value in promoting the growth of children (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 2005). Milk is a product highly conducive to microbial growth, especially bacterial pathogens depending on the manipulations it is subjected to. Milk have its physical, chemical and biological properties easily altered by the actions of microorganisms. Thus the number of bacteria in milk directly influences the quality and safety of dairy products, due to its characteristics, milk deserves special attention in its production, processing marketing and consumption.
Milk can be described as a white liquid produced by the mammary gland of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Milk is also described as a good of outstanding interest, which is designed by nature to be complete good for very young mammals (Fox and Cameron, 2000). Milk contains a wide variety of constituents and contains most of the food factors associated with bacterial nutrition. Milk as a single food is of high nutritional value and is associated with spoilage microorganisms. At the time milk leaves the udder of the healthy cow, it contains few bacteria these stem from milk ducts and cistern.
During the milking process, bacteria are usually added from various sources. In hand milking the sources are air the hair of the animal manure, the milkers equipment such as pails, feed and machine. However, the milking equipment may serve as an important source of contamination if it is not carefully cleaned and sanitized (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 2005).
After milk has been drawn it is rapidly cooled to 450C of prevent contaminants from multiplying. To eliminate pathogens from milk the process of pasteurization is applied. This involves application of heat below the boiling point (Fraizer and Westhoff, 2008). The main thrust of this work is, therefore to evaluate the microbial contents of raw material from a dairy farm.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In Nigeria dairy farmers count their losses from unprotected raw milk derived from their ranch farms. Studies have also have also shown that this raw milk form dairy farms are laddened with micro-organisms that end up spoiling the milk and causing diseases to man that drink them. Consequently many un Nigerians have lost their lives through drinking the infected raw milk. There is fear that if this is not checked many more lives will be lost. The main thrust of this work therefore is to evaluate and identify bacteria content of raw milk and proffer solutions to their ameliorations.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the micro-flora on raw milk. Specifically the work sought to.
i) Identify micro-organisms that contaminate raw milk.
ii) Investigate the relationship between age and effects of drinking contaminated raw milk.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1) What are the microorganisms that contaminate raw milk and their symptoms?
2) What is the relationship between age and effects of drinking contaminated raw milk?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study, is that it will help the populace to know the actual microorganism that can contaminate the milk. It also helps to know the dangers of consumption of unboiled and unprocessed raw milk. It avails one of health hazards due to contamination with pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli, S. aureus and S. typhi. Lives lost through drinking contaminated raw milk would be reduced.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY/DELIMITATION
This work is delimited to the microbial evaluation of raw milk for dairy farm in Emene Fulani cattle Ranch farm in Enugu State.