Studies On The Status And Species Composition Of Termites In Different Land Use Systems And Their Management On Maize In East Wollega Zone Western Ethiopia

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In Ethiopia, agro ecological based termite infestation emerged with the spread of invasive termiternspecies. In response, various species and assemblage were come to exist in Ethiopia, western andrnEastern Wollega areas since 1904. Therefore, continuous studies on various aspects are crucial inrntermite prone sites. Hence, the current study was aimed at species composition and status ofrntermites in different land uses and their management on maize in east Wollega zone; Nunuqumba,rnDiga, Limu and Nekemte districts from August 2017 to December 2021.Qualitative survey usingrnquestionnaire was employed for data collection from 90 smallholders in each districts. Termiternencounters are surveyed and identified. Data was analyzed using SPSS. For soil physicochemicalrnanalysis of four land uses and three patches in each land use having a plot size of (100 m x 100m)rnthree mound in each patch and soil sample from 0-20cm, 20-40cm and 40-60cm mound positionrnand adjacent soil in each patches was collected and composited from purposively selected sites inrnFitbako kebele. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) inrnthree replications and adjacent soil was used as a control. There are 16 treatments replicated threerntimes. The sub-samples composited soil was analyzed with reference to National soil researchrncenter of Ethiopia. Cultivated land termite soil, adjacent and non-mound soil nnutrientsrncomposition and their effect on maize plant growth in the presence or absence of NPK in greenrnhouse condition were experimented with soil collected at the depth of 0-30cm in which adjacentrnand non-mound soil were collected 5m and 20m away from the mound respectively. Maize varietyrnBH-661 and NPK fertilizer were the materials .In the experiment three kg sample soil was addedrnto each pots, the experiment was laid out in (CRD) with 12 treatments replicated three times andrntermite genera, termite mound, adjacent and non-mound soil physicochemical value , plantrngrowth traits at 2,4 and 8 weeks and yield parameter data were collected and analyzed.For therndetermination of botanical efficacy on termite management the locally available botanicals ,rnCroton macrostachys(Hochst), L. Jatropha curcas and Phytolacca dodecandra L leaves were collectedrndried under shade, grounded in to a fine powder, sieved and stored. The experiment was conductedrnon irrigation and rain fed field (3 mx7.5m) arranged in (RCBD) with four replication. Botanicalrnpowder 300 g was weighed and soaked in 1000 ml distilled water and filtered and collected tornviirn200ml beaker, from the beaker 20 ml was powered to syringe and injected to each hole 10 daysrnbefore planting and at different growth stages of maize and data of termites, galleries and moundsrnwere recorded two days before planting and every two days after treatment application at allrngrowth stages of maize plant and at harvest, maize cobs were collected and yields were analyzed.rnA total of 295 termite specimens collected were Termitidae in its four Sub families and ninerngenera. These termites are traditionally known and are high in low altitude of grazing land and lowrnin high altitude of disturbed forest, Standard quadrat Survey also revealed high termite density (n),rngalleries and mound in grazing land followed by cultivated land and disturbed forest. They arernrecorded from Nunuqumba and Diga districts. Mound constructing termites improve mound soilsrntexture and enable retaining of pH, OC, OM TN, P, K, Ca and Mg than Adjacent and Non-moundrnsoil. Soil nutrients retain was contributed by Macrotermes, Pseudacanthotermes and Odontotermes.rnNutrient rich mound soil favour plant growth and resulted in high mean plant growth trait at 2, 4rnand 8 weeks, subsequently, grain yield weight of maize at harvest show significant (p

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Studies On The Status And Species Composition Of Termites In Different Land Use Systems And Their Management On Maize In East Wollega Zone Western Ethiopia

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