TRAINING DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION AS A MEANS OF BOOSTING EMPLOYEE MORALE IN AN ORGANIZATION
A CASE STUDY OF CADBURY
NIGERIA PLC LAGOS
This study was to conduct a research work on the above topic, using Cadbury Nigeria Plc as my primary source of information to collect relevant data.
The area covered by the researcher include among the historical background of the company and the method adopted in training their personnel.
Also there is a critical review in development and training in the organization and the actual performance within the organization.
The prospect of training and development in an organization as related to production will be appraised.
The caliber of personnel involved in the training and development programme will be worked into there will be an evaluation of the training and development programme.
The importance of training and development as motivational factor will be reviewed.
I will review some textbook to back my research work then aspects will include definitions and objectives of training and development, again some research work experts will also be taking into consideration; in order to know how effective is training and development to the motivation of workers, for high productivity and efficiency.
Every Organization be it people or private has the primary aim of achieving the organizational goals for which it was being set up.
These goals can only be achieved by the judicious acquisition and effective utilization of its man power resources.
According to E.F.L. Brech (1976) Management in principle Pg. 10 Training and Development this is an aspect of management practice wherein a good deal of realistic and reliable knowledge is called for as well as the expertise to be able to interpret and translate the disclosed needs into the ways and means of improvement.
Generally guidance on this matter is not easy to offer and it could be unwise if allowed to become the substitute for expert assistance.
This is also important that the programmes for development whether by training (learning) or by others means, should allow for and encourage the self-help efforts of gained from this factor improving competence. There is major benefit to be gained too, from wise counseling by older and senior mangers. This is particularly true when the improvements called for lie the direction of personal attitude, of behaviour towards colleagues and subordinates or of judgment and decision. Such counseling should not occur only at the periodic appraisal reviews but, should rather be a feature of the everyday exercise of the managerial roles.
According to Lawrence L. Bethel, Franklin S. at water, George H.E. Smith, Harvey A. Stackman, Jr. and James L. Riggs, industrial Organization and Management Fifth Edition Pg. 427 says larger companies have been giving increasing attention to the training and development of management members above the foremen level: department heads, staff assistants and officers. The systematic inventory of executive potential which highlights the training need, the essence of this is a self-evaluation of training and experiences a soul-searching analysis present performance and a selection of specific items to be improved. If a man can recognized his own weaknesses and find means to strengthen them, this is one of the best forms of executive development.
Therefore, no organization can progress, grow and excel without training and promoting its working force for high productivity and efficiency. However in a growing economy like Nigeria there is likely to be high rate of managerial turnover and because of these, gap many arise in the managerial structure of the industry, in filling these gaps, skilled people from different sectors are appraised and will need to be trained and development in order to fit the specific needs of management.
Manpower is one of the vital resources of any organization and it plays a vital role in development of the nation. Land capital and manpower and the basic factors of production, it is pertinent to know that manpower is the most important of all these factors, this is because when there is no manpower the other factors can not operate.
In almost the 3rd world countries in which Nigeria belongs to, the major hindrance to the successful implementation of national development plan since our independence in 1960 is our inability to develop highly rich resource of manpower; lack of development of our social economic sphere often lead to disintegration of our indigenous industry growth.
Speight (1989) editor in the book title the science of price, wrote that income is the product of human efforts acting upon or aided by other resource, it follows that income could always be increased by the application of more human effort to scarce resources. A country that cannot develop the skill and knowledge of its human resource and utilized them effectively in the national economy cannot develop anything else.
In addition, if a country fails to train develop and promote the necessary class of people in a way that is expected of such country, it would not produce positively rather such country will remain unproductive.
Basically, the success of any organization will depend on the effective use of human resources available to that organization. At any point in time in the life of the organization there should be the right number of employees with the right level of skill doing the right job at the right time and performing the right activities with the aim of achieving the right objective. In effect every manager in an organization has a number of assets at his disposal he is accustomed to view physical assert, like plants and machinery as an investment on which he expects a reasonable return.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE ORGANIZATION
Cadbury Nigeria Plc, is one of the largest manufacturers of confectioneries in Nigeria to day Cadbury Nigeria Plc, started as an off short of Cadbury fry export limited, a British company primary engaged in the purchase of cocoa from the west coast of Africa.
Cadbury Nigeria Plc, was effectively started in Nigeria in the 9th day of January 1966 with the setting up of factory at Agidingbin village near Ikeja and this was mainly due to the encouraging sales of pronto which, it experienced during the year 1956 to 1966, from a staff strength of 268 workers, it grew to a total of 2,000 workers of which, 200 are management and supervisory staff and also has sales depot all over the federation.
Cadbury Nigeria Plc, started with a depot in 1959, this depot was extended to include a small production unit which packed bulk supplied of pronto and Bornvita from England.
In 1964 due to the rise in sales complete manufacturing schemes for production was established and production of Bornvita started in 1965. During the years 1963 and 1964 a lot of research work was undertaken with the object of introducing new products which has been specially developed for the Nigeria market and as a result, two new products were introduced. Goody-Goody and Tomapep and they were launched in 1966. In the past 35 years, Cadbury Nigeria Plc has grown to be amongst one of the heading manufacturing industries in Nigeria with over N2million fixed assets. Cadbury Nigeria Plc has its own headquarters in United Kingdom (U.K) known as Cadbury Schweppes Group of U.K.
Other products being produced now include Malta-sweet, butter-mint, Knor cube, Dawadawa cube, Trebor brand confectionery, Éclairs chocolate sweet e.t.c.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Before now, organizations are known for training and development, due to their personnel and because of the huge amount of money involved hence they recruit employee and this does not only affect company’s image but reduces out put because of the inexperience of some of the employed staff.
The researcher now wants to look into these conditions to see why there is no effective training, development and promotion of staff within the company.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The efficiency of an organization can be measured by the degree to which the organization excels in carrying out its’ business operations.
This study is concerned with: Finding out the methods adopted by organizations increasing eh overall effectiveness of its managerial cadre through training, promotion and development, and they are as follows: -
i. To find out if there has been a training, development and promotion in their policy at all.
ii. To identify the cadre those are sent for this training and development. To ascertain whether the program is still in existence
iii. To determine the training and development methods adopted by the organization.
iv. To find out whether workers are promoted as and when due.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Due to logistic reason the choice of respondents was limited to the Cadbury Nigeria Plc headquarter.
The refused of some of the respondent to answer some of eh questions.
Some of the questions provided also added to some of problems, thereby limiting researcher in making accurate deduction.
Some of the questionnaires were not seen for further accuracy of the research.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Does Cadbury Nigeria Plc have training and development package in their policy?
2. Do training, promotion and development of staff enhance level of productivity in the organization?
3. What cadres of workers are sent for training development?
4. Do training development and promotion motive workers?
5. Do promotion, development and training reduce the rate of managerial turnover?
6. Do training, development and promotions boost workers morale for increasing productivity?
7. How often do employees go for training?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will help all the companies especially Cadbury Nig. Plc. to find out if their training, promotion and development enhance productivity leads to a reduction in a managerial turnover and to show if it serves as a means of booster to the employee.
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Training: - Is the organized behaviour by which people learn knowledge. It is main objective is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained. Looking at training from industrial point of view training means that trainees shall acquire new manipulative skills, technical knowledge and problem solving ability.
Development: - This can be described as growth or advancement in any form, be it political, social or economical. It can also be described as the positive outcome of knowledge acquire through training.
Promotion: - This can be seen as a result of a successful completion of training or the reward of a brilliant performance of an employee within his working environment.
Manpower: - Is the human resources in the organization for output.
Managerial Shortage: - This can be refer to a situation whereby the staff under the organization did not gain interim of training promotion and development
Turnover: - Rate at which staff leave the organization.
Dale S. Beach: The Management of people at work; 1st Edition (Macmillan Publishing Company New York 1965)
Frank A. Dephillips: Management of Training Programme William A, Berliner 1st Edition (Illinois, Homewood 1964)
And James Gribben
Ivor K. Davies (1973): The Organization of Training
Harold Koontz, Cyril: Management and Organization
O’ Donnell, Heinz Development 8th Edition
Weichrich (1984) McGraw Hill, Publishing Company Singapore
E.F.L. Brech (1976): Management in Principle 1st Edition.
Lawrence L. Bethel, Franklins Atwater, George H.E. Smith
Harvey A. Stackman, Jr. and James L. Riggs: Industrial Organization and Management Fifth Edition