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Evaluaton Of Current Techniques In Diagnoses Of Human Immunodaficiency Virus (hiv)

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EVALUATON OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODAFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

ABSTRACT

 

          A study was carried to ascertain the potency of some techniques used in diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV).  Two hundred and five samples (203) were collected from the patients from the university of Nigerian teaching hospital and was analysed using Elisa kit, which has the ability to detect antibodies and antigens in the patients serum, the Western blots were used as the confirmatory test, to the Elisa test, In case where there is false positive of Elisa test, it is specific and sensitive, Radioimmunoasay looks for the antigens which are radioactively label.  The patients result shows that 154 patients out of the 205 diagnosed were negative and only 51 patients were positive.  The Elisa kit were best used because of  its sensitivity and specificity.  It is very cheap and can be easily seen in the market, unlike the Radiommunoassay which are rare and very expensive to be used.

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLE

 

Table1:       Number of both sexes, age and the results of patience
diagnosed.

Table2:       Number of both positive and negative Results

 

Table          3:       Numbers of negative results with their percentage

 

Table 4:      Number of negative results with their percentage

 

Table 5:      Rate of infection among the study group

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page                                                                               

Certification                                                                                     

Acknowledgment                                                                    

Dedication                                                                              

Abstract                                                                                 

List of tables                 

                                                         

CHAPTER ONE                                               

1.0     Introduction                                                                           

1.1     Hypothesis                                                                   

1.2     Aims and Objectives                                                     

1.3     Statement of problem                                                   

1.4     Limitation of study

                                                         

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature review                                                           

2.1     Pathogenesis of HIV infection                                      

2.2     Epidemiology of HIV                                                   

2.3     Transmission of HIV infection                                               

2.4     Viral replication of HIV                                                

2.5     Symptoms of HIV infection                                          

2.6     Life cycle of HIV                                                           

2.7     Facts about HIV/AIDS

                                                         

          CHAPTER THREE                                 

3.0     Materials and Method                                                   

3.1     Current  diagnosis of HIV infection                              

3.2     Laboratory diagnosis                                                    

3.3     Radiomminoassay                                                                  

3.4     Enzymes Linked immunosorbentassay Elisa                          

3.5     Western blot        

 

 

                                                                  

          CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results                                                                          

5.0     Discussion and conclusion                                            

          References                                                                     

          Appendices                                                         

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          The Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition that slowly destroys the body Immune system and makes the body vulnerable to infections.  The virus is typically called Human Immunodeficiency  virus (HIV) because it destroys the Immune system of the individual which is responsible for protecting the individual from disease.  The immunodeficiency associated with, HIV infection can be enormous, and it is the major cause of death, due to the disfucntion of immune system.  The problem with AIDS is , sits neurological dementia complex.  HIV is a lentivirus, a subgroup of retrovirus.  The  family of virus is known for  lafency, persistent viremia, infection of the nervous system and weak hot immune system.  Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is small ultra-microscopic organism that infect living things and uses them to make copies of itself when one’s Immune system is damaged by HIV, AIDS take place (Gallants, 1999).

HIV was first recognized in 1981 in Homosexual men in New York city.  In the united states the HIV is now known to have originated from chimpanzees, transmission from chimps to human.  Initially, there was wild speculation about what might be the cause of AIDs, but in 1982, the centre for disease control had convincing epidermological evidence that AIDS was caused by a new infectious agents.

          Dulbecco et-al (1983, located small quantities of the new virus named Lymphademopalty virus (LAN) but enough to be used an antigenina blood test which showed that AIDS patients were infected with the virus.  WHO, (19097), responded that the number of patients living with AIDS has escaculated, a figure of 9000 was confirmed by may 1997.  In African AIDs

 

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