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Science Lab Technology Project Topics and Research Materials




Steam distillation and solvent extraction were mainly used in the extraction of essential oil. With steam distillation, it was found out that the oil was 4.51% obtained. Solvent extraction gave its own as 6.30% steam distillation gave a higher purity of oil than solvent extraction while the later gave a higher quantity of oil with impurities.

There was analysis and characterization of the oil results were obtained. The samples were found to contain food nutrients such as protein, oil, amino acid, vitamin A and vitamin C. The oil is very important in the society so it is suggested that larger quantity be extracted from other locally source raw materials to improve the economy of the country.



Title Page







1.0     Introduction

1.1            Statement of problem

1.2            Objectives of the study

1.3            Limitation of study

1.4            Hypothesis



2.0     Literature review

2.1            History of essential oils

2.2            Composition

2.3            Isolation of essential oils

2.4            Analysis

2.5            General method of determining structures

2.6            General structure of essential oil

2.7            Functions of essential oils in plants

2.8            Concentration

2.9            Method of extraction and production

2.10       Distribution law




3.0     Materials

3.1            Methods

3.2            Steam distillation (Apparatus)

3.3            Solvent extraction

3.4            Analysis




4.1            Solvent extraction and steam distillation

4.2            Values of the extraction work

4.3            Acid value

4.4            Specific gravity value

4.5            Iodine value

4.6            Saponification value  

4.7            Boiling and melting point












The cashew tree is evergreen, and serves as food to many in so many ways in that all the parts are consumable and they are highly medicinal. The trees are most frequent found in coastal areas.

Cashew is an economic crop in Nigeria and it has been grown in small plantations in Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Kwara, and Oyo and to a Leaser extent in Ogun, Osun, Delta, Ondo and other states. The main commercial product of the cashew tree is the cashew nut.

In early 90s, cashew nut accounted for N 156.1 million of non-oil export earnings in Nigeria, which continued to increase. Then years after according to CBN annual report, 1997. There are however, no doubt that with considerable increase in planted areas and further increase in world demand for cashew kernels. The cashew industry will continue to expand. However, despite the increase in production, it is only the nut that is mostly utilized in the processing industry.


It is estimated that 60% of the nuts are consumed in the form of snacks while the remains 40% are included in confectionary. About 75% of the nuts value contains essential oil.

Essential oils are odoriferous volatile oily products of plant origin, which are distillable. The esters are extracted from the nut, they be dissolved in a solvent such as water or alcohol or as an emulsion in an oil. The essential oil contained in the cashew nut could be extracted using steam distillation, solvent extraction, effleurage and expression. These extracts from plants are highly volatile and are considered essential part of the plant and hence, the term ‘essential oil’. These oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, trepans benzenoid, adehydes and keton, indole, acids, alcohols and short chain esters. The essential oil is analysis for quality, chemical, physical and organoleptic analysis sieved to determine the quality of the oil.

         Odour and taste must remain the final criteria for the use industrially and for baking of food.


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