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Science Lab Technology Project Topics and Research Materials

THE PRODUCTION OF LAUNDRY STARCH FROM CASSAVA TUBERS

ABSTRACT

 

This work is aimed at the production of laundry starch, using locally sourced raw material (cassava tuber), by extraction of the starch granules from the tubers, 80kg of the harvested fresh cassava tubers were peeled and washed twice to remove dirt and earth. The peeled cassava tubers were re-weighed. 75kg of the peeled tubers was grated manually using a locally made grater to form mash. Clean tap water was added to the mash and stirred. The mixture was sieved off using a mash of 0.25vm in the water to remove the long fibres. The filtrate was allowed to sediment for two hours, the supernatant was then decanted, esterifies to deodourize it and dried at normal temperature of 300C under the sun for 3 days. Another batch was dried at 550C in the oven. The laundry starch extracted was whitish and powdery in nature.

The comparism of the physical chemical characteristics of local and the imported laundry starch such as the colour, crispness and easy flow ironing was found out to be the same. The starch when applied to the fabric and ironed was very smooth, this therefore recommends that good patronage will lead to the emergence of small scale industries which will give employment to many jobless youths and equally generate revenue for the country.


TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            Carbohydrate

1.2            Nature of laundry starch

1.3            Aims and objectives of study

1.4            Statement of problem

1.5            Hypothesis

1.6            Significances of study

1.7            Limitations of work     

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

 

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIAL FOR THE PRODUCTION

3.1            Materials

3.2            Method

3.3            Chart for cassava starch processing

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Result

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0            Discussion/Recommendations

5.1     Conclusion

Reference

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1                                    CARBOHYDRATE

Carbohydrate is defined as a poly hydroaldehydes or poly hydroxy ketones or substances that field this on hydrolysis. They are called carbohydrate (hydrate carbon) because they contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same proportion as in water. Carbohydrates have a general formular (CH2O) n. where n, shows that it is a giant compound.

In terms of chemical properties it also contain nitrogen or sulphur in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are classified based on sugar molecules it contains and this classification is based into four groups. Monosacharide, which hydrolyzed into simple sugar molecules, Disaccharide which is formed by joining together of two molecules of sugar by glycosidic bonds. Oligosaccarides, which and hydrolysis yield 2 to 6 molecules of monosaccharides; polysaccharides are very long chain or polymers of monosaccharides.

 

Polysaccharides are starch, cellulose and glycogen, the most digestible polysaccharide. In plant, starch is polymer of glucose.

 

1.2     NATURE OF LAUNDRY STARCH

Laundry starch is a white crystalline substance that is used for stiffening of fabric before ironing. Starch is a heterogeneous material composes of the glucose polymers, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which accounted for about 80% of the starch of a plant cell is a linear polymer of glucose molecule connected by a glycosidic bonds between C-1 glucose molecule and C-4 of second glucose. Amylopectin is a highly branched amylose in which the braches are attached to C-6 hydroxyl group by α (1-6) glycosidic bonds (caret and Denniston 1982), also stated that the main chain consists of α (1-4) glycosidic bonds. Each branch consists of 20-25 glucose units.

There are many sources of starchy food used in different parts of the world. They are maize starch, rice starch, wheat starch, potato starch, and cassava starch etc.

 

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