This work was carried out to investigate the effects of Burrantashi extracts on the lipoproteins Burantashi is a popular seasoning agent to barbecued meat (Suya) in Nigeria. Found in the northern parts of the country. Lipoproteins are the principal steroid or fat that is synthesized in the liver or intestines of animals. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the consistent or recurrent inability of a man to attain or maintain penile erection, sufficient for sexual activity (2nd international consultation on sexual dysfunction Paris, June 28th –July 1st 2003). Following the discovery and introduction of burantashi research on the mechanism underlying penile erection, had an enormous boost and many preclinical and clinical papers have been published in the last five years on the peripheral regulation of, and the mediators involved in human penile erection. The most widely accepted risk factors for e.g. are discussed. The research is focused on human data and the safety and effectiveness of burantashi stem as a phosphodiesterase – 5- inhibitors (PDEs) used to treat erectile dysfunction.
Erectile dysfunction, ED, is a sexual dysfunction that affects the reproductive systems of both men and women. By definition according to National Institute of Health consensus Development Panel on impotence (1993), in Males, it is a sexual dysfunction characterized with the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It is also known as Male impotence or Baby D syndrome, while in women, according to American Psychiatric Association (1994), it is characterized with the persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or maintain until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate Lubrication- Swelling response that otherwise is present during female sexual arousal and sexual activity is thus prevented. Hence, it is called Women impotence or female erectile dysfunction.
The word impotence may also be used to describe other problems that may interfere with sexual intercourse and reproduction, such as lack of Sexual Desire and problems with ejaculation or orgasm. Using the term “erectile dysfunction,” however makes it clear that those other problems are not involved (NIH, 2005).
An erection occurs as a hydraulic effect due to blood entering and being retained in sponge-like bodies within the penis and clitoris. The process is most often than not initiated as a result of sexual arousal, when signals are transmitted from the brain to nerves in the pelvis.
Erectile dysfunction is, therefore indicated when an erection is consistently difficult or impossible to produce, despite arousal (Laumann et al., 1999).
1.1 PREVALENCE OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN WOMEN
Erectile dysfunction which is known as Female erection dysfunction in women occurs in about 43% of American Women (NIH Consensus Conference, 1993). And this medical Condition is a persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain clitoral erection until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate Lubrication –Swelling response that is normally present during Female sexual arousal and sexual activity is therefore, absent. The individual having the condition is said to experience frigidity (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Again,
According to Otubu et al. (1998) about 8.7% of Women suffer from this very condition in the United States while between 35.3 - 40%, according to Adequnloye (2002) and Eze (1994) of Women in Nigeria suffer from this condition. Spector and Carey (1994) reported 5-10% in the United States.
In addition, Female erectile dysfunction occurs at any age but majorly in old age. Hence, the most significant age related change is menopause (Karen, 2000) and (Rod et al., 2005). However, erectile dysfunction may be caused by diabetes, atherosclerosis, hormonal imbalances, neurological problems etc. (Organic causes) or stress, depression etc.
Because treating the underlying causes (Organic or Psychological), the first line treatment of ED consists of a trial of PDES inhibitor (the first of which was Sildenafil or Viagra). In some cases, treatment can involve prostag-Landin tablets in the Urethra, intravenous injection with a fine needle into the penis or clitoris that causes swelling of Penis or Clitoris Pump or Vascular surgery, estrogen replacement therapy for the women etc.
Although there are various methods and techniques that are used to treat this very condition, however, for the purpose of this project, the treatment is restricted to Yohimbe, an extract from Pausinystalia yohimbe.