Effect Of Momordica Charantia Leaf Fractions On Serum Electrolytes And Renal Function Indices In Alloxan-induced Diabetic Albino Rats

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Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in the community, plant like Momordica charantia can be used to correct this disorder. Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon is a member of the family Cucurbittaceae. Seed, fruit and leave of this plant contain bioactive compounds with a wide range of biological activities that have been used in traditional medicine, in the treatment of several diseases including inflammation, infection and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia fractions on some serum electrolytes and renal function indices in an alloxan induced albino rats. Fourty albino rats (180-274 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups with five in each group. The rats were injected intra-peritoneally with single dose of 100 mg/kg alloxan induced. Multiple doses 200 mg/kg of various fractions of plant extract were administered orally once daily for 14days. The rats were then sacrificed at 14th day and blood was collected for renal function test and electrolytes analysis using spectrophotometric method. The result showed that there was significant decrease (p>0.05) in srum level ( Na, K, Cl-) and in renal function indices ( Urea and Creatinine) as compared to the diabetic untreated groups. In conclusion, it has been shown that the leaf fractions of momordica charantia has a significant difference (P>0.05) in serum electrolytes and renal function indices.


 Title Page                                                                                           i

 Approval                                                                                ii

 Certification                                                                           iii

 Dedication                                                                             iv

 Acknowledgement                                                                             v

 Abstract                                                                                             vi

 Table of contents                                                                               vii

 List of Tables                                                                         viii

 List of Figures                                                                                    ix

Chapter one

 1.0. Introduction                                                                                1

 1.1 Aims and objectives of the study                                                            2

Chapter two                    

 2.0. Literature review                                                                         4

 2.1. Geographical distribution of momordica charantia                                           5

2.2. Habitat momordica charantia                                                                  6

2.3. Medicinal properties of momordica charantia                                                    6

2.3. 1.Preservation of pancreatic β cells and insulin secretion                                    7

 2.4. Kidney                                                                                                                            7         

2.4.1. Functions of kidney                                                                              8

2.4.2. Diseases of the kidney                                                              9

 2.5.   Serum electrolytes                                                                                 10

2.5.1. Functions of Serum electrolytes                                                                       10

2.5.2. Clinical relevance of Serum electrolytes                                                           11

2.6. Alloxan induced diabetes                                                                        11

2.6.1. Mechanism of action of alloxan                                                                        12

2.6.2. Effect of alloxan                                                                                   13

Chapter Three               

3.0. Materials and methods                                                                 15

3.1. Material                                                                                        15

3.1.1. Chemical and reagents                                                              15

3.1.2. Equipments                                                                               16

3.1.3. Biological materials                                                                               16

3.2. plant collection                                                                             16 Preparation of plant material                                                               17

3.2.2. Maintenance of experimental animals                                                   19 Induction of alloxan in rats                                                                19

3.3.3. Preparation of extraction for administration                                         19 Preparation of Glibenclamide stock solution                                     19 Preparation of ethyl acetate fraction stock solution                                      20 Preparation of hexane fraction stock solution                                                20 Preparation of methanol fraction stock solution                                            20 Preparation of chloroform fraction stock solution                                          20 Preparation of aqueous fraction stock solution                                              20

3.4. Administration                                                                             20

3.4. Experimental design                                                                                21

3.5 Experimental procedure                                                                21

3.6. Blood sample collection                                                               21

3.7. Determination of different parameters                                                    22

3.7.1. Determination of urea                                                               22

3.7.2. Determination of sodium                                                                      22

3.7.3. Determination of creatinine                                                                  23

3.7.4. Determination of potassium                                                                  24

3.7.5 Determination of Chloride                                                                     25

3.8. Statistical analysis                                                                                    26

Chapter four              

4.0. Result                                                                                           27

Chapter five

5.0. Discussion and conclusion                                                                       33

5.1. Discussion                                                                                    33

5.2. Conclusion                                                                                   34

Reference                                                                                            35

Appendix                                                                                            41



1.1Background of study

Diabetes affects one hundred and thirty five million people in one year worldwide (King et.al., 1999) and this figure is projected to rise to three hundred million in 2025 ((King et. al.,1998). It is obvious that diabetes, a chronic non communicable disease, continues to have a tremendous impact on society in terms of the quality of life and straining health care resources. The costs incurred in managing or preventing it are enormous, both in Kenya and throughout the world. The disease causes substantial morbidity, mortality and long-term complications and remains a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Africa, this disease continues to impact on the poverty levels of the people.

Diabetes mellitus is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose due to absolute oxidative stress may cause tissue to be more susceptible to oxidative damage and progression of disease in renal glomerolus (Brownlee, 2001; Yao et al., 2009).Histopathological evaluations on the diabetic kidney show expansion of mesangial matrix and uniform thickening of basement membranes in glomerulus and tubules (Ziyadeh and Wolf, 2008).

Since ancient times, plants have been a worthy source of medicine, which not only control hyperglycemia at low dosages but can also be taken for longer periods in contrast to synthetic hyperglycemic drugs (Grover et al., 2002). One of these plants is Momordica charantia (MC), also known as karalla, or bitter melon, which belongs to the cucurbitaceafamily, grows in tropical areas, including parts of the Amazon, east Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean, and is cultivated throughout South America as a food and medicine (Grover and Yadav, 2004).

The Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is a widely used plant in the traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been shown that Momordica charantia (Mc) has hypoglycemic effects on animals and humans, however, we don´t know if this effect is present in a chronic time and if the plant extract (stem and leaves) participates in the antihyperglycemic effect.

The Momordica charantia (MC) contains anti-hyperglycemic chemicals include glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oils, triterpenes, proteins and steroids (Murakami et al., 2001; Erden et al., 2010). These chemicals are concentrated in fruits of the Momordica charantia (MC), therefore fruit of the MC has shown more pronounced anti-hyperglycemic activity (Grover and Yadav, 2004). Presence of antioxidants in the fruits and vegetables such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids, lycopenes and flavonoids are also important in prevent free radical injury (Semiz and Sen, 2007). Total flavonoid and phenol contents ofMomordica charantia (MC) extract were analyzed and revealed that MC extract possess potent diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (Wu and Ng, 2008). Several studies have reported the anti-diabetic effects of MC on renal functional and histological changes in alloxan albino rats but only limited data is available on the anti-diabetic effects of MC on renal functional and histological changes in rats. 1.1. Aim

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia leaf fractions on some serum electrolytes and renal biomarkers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

1.1.0 Specific objectives

i.   To obtain fractions of Mormodica charantia leaf modified multi solvent serial extraction

ii.   To evaluate the effect of Mormodica charantialeaf fractions on serum electrolytes and       other renal function indices in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats.

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Effect Of Momordica Charantia Leaf Fractions On Serum Electrolytes And Renal Function Indices In Alloxan-induced Diabetic Albino Rats