1.0 Background of the Study
Stress is a common element in any kind of job and persons have to face it in almost every walk of life. Stress has been defined in different ways over the years. According to Robbins and Sanghi (2006) "A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraints, or demand related to what he or she desire and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
Stress is an increasing problems in organization and often causes adverse effectors on performance.
According to Kahm and Quinn (1970) "stress is the outcome of facet of the assigned work role that cause harmful effect for individual. Occupation stress is considered as harmful factor of the work environment. it also has unpleasant effect on health of an individual as David (1998) contributed, it can be labeled as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirement of the job do not match the capability, resources, or need of the workers. Job stress can lead to poor health and even injury.
According to International Labour Organization (ILO) 1986 it is recognized world-wide as major challenge to individual mental and physical health, and organizational health. Although stress include both good and bad. Robbins and Sanghi (2006) also contributed stress is typically discussed in a negative Contex; it also has a positive value. It is an opportunity when offers a potential gain. Rubina et al, (2008) contributed of the same stress is not always negative harmful and indeed, the absence of stress is death.
The work place of the 21th century is a fast paced, dynamic highly stimulating environment which brings a large number of benefit and opportunities to those who work within it. Theever-changing demands of the working world can increase levels of stress, especially for those who are consistently working under pressure such as Nigerian workers, while pressure has its positive side in raising performance, if such pressure becomes excessive it can lead to stress which has negative consequences(Santiago 2003).
According to the Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary 6th edition stress could among other things refers to pressure, tension or worries arising from problematic situations is an individual’s life. Where the incidence of such stress is traceable to a job or work situation; it is known as job stress (Narayanan et al, 1999). He further observe job stress could in fact be identified with almost any aspect of a job or work situation such as extreme of heat, noise and light or too much or too little responsibility e.t.c.
According to Irene( 2005) job stress is a pattern of reactions that occurs when worker presented with work demands that are not matched to their knowledge, skills or abilities and which challenges their ability to cope. It is evident from this Irene’s definition that job stress is mostly associated with under-employment.
Stress at work is a relatively new phenomenon of modern life style. The nature of work has gone through drastic changes over the last century and it is still changing at whirlwind speed. They have touched almost all professions starting from an artist to a surgeon or a commercial pilot to sales executive, with change comes- stress, in evitable.
In most cases, job stress is attributed to negative situation such as a formal reprimand by one’s superior for the poor performances could also bring about job stress, such as job promotion and transfer to another location, job stress has attracted considerable attention in recent times especially within the context or organization behavior(Kazini et al 2008, Shahu and Cole 2008; Nilifar et al 2009). Most research finding suggest that when an individual comes under stress, his cognitive performance and decision making may be adversely affected.
Kazini et al (2008) investigated the effect of job stress on employee’s productivity and found that there is a negative relationship between job stress and job productivity.
Shahu and Gole (2008), inquired if there was any relationship between job performance, job satisfaction and job stress and found that higher stress levels are related to lower performance, Sabir and Helge (2003), noted that the major negative effects on workers working and personal lives.
Santiago 2003, examine the negative effect of internal stress on police performance and found that the negative stress that often results from organizational setting through poor management can be debilitating, there is evidence to suggest that, there are ways in which an organization can help to reduce instance of job stress, or better manage the issue when it arise. Effective people management good two-way communication between employers and employees, suitable working environment and effective work. Organizations are just some of the factor which can have an impact. However, there is the need to examine critically the nature and effect of job stress in Evans Nigeria Plc before suggesting, ways by which the management could deals with it. This is the main thrust of this study.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
For most people, work is significant and meaningful feature or life with the Majority of them spending around 25% of their adult lives working while work can provides people with structure, purpose, satisfaction, self-esteem and spending power the workplace. Can also be a setting of stress, while stresses can be triggered by sudden, unexpected pressure, it is often the result of a combination of stressful factors which accumulate overtime. Some people can become so used to the symptoms of excessive stress that goes unnoticed to their detriment. Most job stress and whether you feel you have power (Jungwea, 2007). Some people are affected more than others so what is stressful for one person may not be stressful for another. It can depend on your personality type on how you have learned to respond to pressure.
Stress is not always negative or harmful and indeed, the absence of stress is death Luthans 1989, asserts that we all need some degree or stress to function normally, thus in this opinion, mild level of stress may not be completely bad for employee’s as a means of enhancing their job performance. However, empirical studies carried out on the incidence of stress among Nigerian workers by Olugbile (1982); Asika and Adeserrane (1985) and Akinusi(1995) have show that consistently high level of stress in conjunction with other social-political and economic factors has contributed to the declining performance and productivity of the Nigerian workers (Nwaroh 1991). Apart from the grave national economic consequences of such declining performance and productivity, job stress also poses serious health problem (Cox, et al, 1996)
The current turbulent Nigerian business environment requires workers and organization to reexamine their practice. Banking is an inherently stressful profession with long working hours, slue competition, ethical dilemmas regulatory bottlenecks and difficult customers. The issue of job stress among Nigerian bank workers could be better addressed if the factors responsible such stress were properly identified and evaluate. The question of how job affect worker performance is a relevant one given to nature of today’s industry and the challenges faced by Nigerian workers.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
Individuals are well adapted to cope with short-term exposure to pressure. In fact this can often be positive but there will be greater difficulty in coping with prolong intensive pressure. A key point to recognize is that individuals will react differently to pressure in different situation and different stage in their working live. Base on the foregoing, it is worthwhile to conduct a research of this nature to reveal specific fact about job stress in Nigeria working environment.
The specific objectives of the study can be stated as follows.
1.3 Research Question
This research questions that would guide this study are stated below:
1.4 Formulation of Hypothesis
Hi – Job stress has effects on employee’s performance
Hi – There is strategies for dealing with job stress in Nigeria
1.5 Significance of the Study
The desire of every employer is optimum productivity.
This can only be achieved when the employees work at their best. But one major factor that has been identified in the literature to affect the performance of employees is job stress.
Therefore, the employers and/or management cannot ignore the influence of job stress in attaining the organization set goals. The focus of this study is to understand how job stress affects workers productivity and also to identify the factors that are responsible for job stress, with the knowledge it may be possible to “adjust” these factors in order to improve the performance of the employees as well as that of the organization.
The application of the finding of this study is mainly for the design and implementation of the most effective’s strategies for dealing with job stress in Evans Nigeria plc.
However, it is hoped that the key ideas can be transported to any work place wishing to increase or enhance workers productivity.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is an attempt to provide employers and employees with a frame work of measure which will identify and prevent problem of job stress and help to manage them when they do arise, although stress is associated with a number of factors, the scope of this study will be limited to only work related stress. Furthermore, effect of job stress on workers’ productivity using Evans Nigeria plc would be investigated empirically.
This will help to put to rest the controversy surrounding the likely effects of stress on workers performance.
Job stress is a common phenomenon in every occupation, the focus of this research shall be on the Nigerian Industries with special interest Evans Nigeria plc. The selection of this sector faces on daily basic especially in recent times with work force cutbacks which could have resulted in greater pressure on remaining workforces with increased work overload or stress.
The research is intend to be elaborated in order to gather diversified opinion on the subject matter and to allow for precision in the identification job related stressors for every individual respondent.
1.7 Definition ofthe Terms Used