INTERFACE MONITORING AND ANALYSIS OF PIPELINE AND PRODUCTS MARKETING COMPANY LIMITED ENUGU DEPOT.
This research was carried out with the sole aim of monitoring interface in the transportation of petroleum pipeline products and the analysis of this product from Enugu depot. In the research it was observed that product contaminates each other if interface was not properly monitored and cut at the appropriate time.
The three major products that were considered in this research were premium motor spirit (PMS) automotive gas premium (AGO0 and dual purpose kerosene (DPK).
The tests carried out point test smoke point test, initial and final boiling point test (Distillation), temperature and density test, to ascertain the standard quality specification and the extent of their purity.
It was observed from the result that the flash point value for DPK and AGO were 430c and 820c respectively. The average smoke point test values for DPK product was 21.92mm. the initial and final boiling point of PMS were350c and 1750c, respectively. The observed density at the DPK/AGO interface monitoring test were 819 kg/m3 and 850 kg/m3 and corrected densities for DPK and AGO were 830.2kg/m3 and 859.9kg/m3respectively. The interface reception cut point for DPK/AGO interface monitoring was made at the corrected density of 849.0 kg/m3. And the temperature of DPK and AGO were 310c respectively.
The result from the analysis revealed that the boiling point of PMS was far more lower than that of AGI and DPK, which implies that PMS has a higher volatility than the two other products the flash point test revealed that the minimum temperature at which AGO and DPK ignites was 66.50c and 430c PMS was not determined because of its high volatility. Also, the standard minimum smoke point of DPK was determined to be 22mm. The smoke point test for AGO and PMS were not carried out because, they were not domestically used and their combustion normally takes value in an engine.
This research has become very necessary because it reveals the proper way pf handling petroleum pipeline product to meet standard specification for domestic and industrial use.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter of transmittal
Table of contents
1.1 Historical perspective
1.2 Introduction to petroleum transportation by pipeline
1.3 Product movements and handling
1.4 Batching procedure
1.5 Interface detection and control
1.6 Interface growth
1.7 Product quality control
1.9 Product contamination
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Historical review of interface
2.2 Pipeline hydraulics
2.3 Laminal and turbulent flow
2.4 The Reynolds number
2.5 Operating philosophy
3.0 Experimental method/ procedure
3.1 List of laboratory equipment
3.2 Experiment method
3.3 Interface monitoring test (first step)
3.4 Experimental test on the various pipeline product (second step)
3.4.1 Flash point test
3.4.2 Smoke point test
3.4.3 Distillation test
3.4.4 Temperature and relative density test
4.0 Experimental results
1.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
PIPELINE TRANSPORT OPERATION
As an instrument of transport, the pipeline is almost as old as the wheel. Indeed, one of the big problems facing earning civilizations in their development of the first cities was the provision of an effective water supply, and the inventive clines are believed to have used bamboo pipes for this purpose as much as 7,000 year ago. The Syrians the Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans all used water mains made of clay or hollow stone, and in 525 B.C. the king of Persia supplied his desert arm with water by means of a pipeline made of sown oxetride.
The problem of bulk transport of oil arose an soon as the modern international oil industry itself was in Pennsylvania in 1859. During the early days of the industry the uniform method of moving crude oil or refined products in bulk was by barrels. These were loaded on to wagons trains or ships like any ordinary merchandise. However teamsters owning wagons were charging such exorbitant have age was sought. Pipeline appeared the obvious answer and after some encouraging experiments with wooden pipes the first commercially successful oil pipeline was built in 1865. this line, 2 in diameter was made of cast iron could handle 250 tones of oil per day. Its advantages over wagons and barrels for over land transport were instantly appreciated by other petroleum dealers, and very soon many more lines were in service. steel began replacing cast iron about the year 1910, and a proliferation of pipelines resulted.
It has many year been accepted that whereas pipeline for cheaper transportation than road or rail tankers, they cannot compete on equal terms with ocean going tankers and are this economically dependent on the fact that they can usually be laid on a short alignment than the corresponding sea have.
Product lines in any country depend upon the development of a large concentrated market area. Pipeline constitutes the most economical method of transporting large volumes of fluid under these conditions. Under normal conditions a pipeline can transport products at about one quarter the cost of a comparable movement burial are even greater. In addition, pipeline can compete economically with all types of in land large movements.
1.2 INTRODUCTION TO PERTOLEUM TRANSPORTATION BY PIPELINE
The commercial transportation of petroleum is done in bulk so as to take the advantage of the economy of seal and thereby reduce unit cost of shipment. Moving the commodity in bulk required the use of read tanker trucks rail wagons, pipeline and ocean- going vessel however among by three hinter land means of transportation by rail wagon, pipeline and road truck, transportation by pipeline remain the cheapest and safest.
At independence, in 1960, multinational companies such as Mobil supplied Nigeria’s petroleum product needs through the importation of petroleum products, total British petroleum (now African petroleum) and ESSO (now OANDO) the first refinery in Nigeria was owned by BP- shell and was commissioned in 1965 shortly before the out break of the civil was that spanned the period 1966-1970. The refinery, with the daily capacity of 35, 000 BSD become grossly inadequate to meet the national consumption at the end of the civil war in 1970. This was due largely to the unprecedented high level of economic activities engaged upon by the federal government to re-construct and rehabilitate the damage done to infrastructure during the civil war.
The federal government subsequently built and commissioned the warri refinery and constructed and company (WRPC) in 1972 constructed and commissioned 30lkm of pipeline with its associated petroleum storage depots in 1979/80 under the pipeline phased. 182 project. In addition, it constructed and commissioned the Kaduna refining and petrochemical company (KRPC) in 1979. The pipeline phase 182 comprises five systems for ease of operations namely 2A, 3B, 2C, 2D, and 2E. this network was expanded under the pipeline phase 3 to a total of 4950km, to link all the three refineries in the country in 1995 and designated system 2CX,2DX,and 2EX.
The nation wide NNPE pipeline system with its associated bulk petroleum storage depots, therefore, brought the supply of white petroleum products close to major cities and towns in Nigeria. The depots are located at Lagos (at satellite), Atlas cove, Ibadan Ilorin, Ore, Benin, Warri, Port Harcourt, Aba, Enugu, Markurdi, Yola, Suleja, Minna, Kaduna, Kano, Gombe, Gusau, Jos and Maiduguri. These depots are linked by pipelines of various sized ranging between 6 to 16 no her in diameter.Only the calabar depot is not linked to the pipeline network.
Consequently, government through the NNPC took over the importation of petroleum products into Nigeria, after the findings of the oputa panel of Enguiry in 1975 to examine the root cause of the refining and storage facilities and pipelines to link these storage centers. This culminated in the construction and commissioning of ht 125, 00 bld capacity warri refinery in 1978, the phases 1 and 2 pipeline system along with 17 storage depots in 1979 and the 110,000b/d capacity Kaduna refinery in 1980.
The commissioning of the Kaduna complex enable the nation to produce base oils for the manufacturing of engine oils and bitumen for road construction
1.3 PRODUCT MOVEMENTS AND HANDLING GENERAL
The NNPC headquarters of the Nigerian products pipelines system has the primary function of coordinating the safe movement of products through the entire pipeline system its scheduling group is responsible for overall planning of product movements is coordination with the dispatching group at the port Harcourt control center the system 2E port Harcourt to Makurdi pipeline dispatching group under deputy chief engineer operations is responsible for implementing the schedule and adjusting for short term scheduling changes. This function also involves the handling of information from locations remotely controlled by the port Harcourt control center.
To dispatchers require accurate current information on all movements. Efficient operation of the pipeline requites very close cooperation of filed and disputing personal.
NNPC headquarters will prepare system 2E, port Harcourt to Makurdi pipeline pumping schedules. This schedule will normally provide pumping rates used as the basis of preparing the schedule. From the NNPC schedule the dispatchers will prepare detailed 15 day pumping and delivery schedules based on actual pumping rates and stripping rates of products leaving the line at delivering points.
The dispatcher at the port Harcourt control center will supply port Harcourt station, Aba, Enugu, AND Makurdi with switching times gravities and supplemental information relative to each operation.
Any unusual incidents or circumstances related to product hardly or product quality must be reported to the port Harcourt dispatcher at once.
1.31 PRODUCT MOVEMENT SCHEDULE
Scheduling activities should be accomplished in such a manner as to ensure the at the least operating the required product volume group of NNPC headquarters is responsible for planning all shipments throughout the entire system.
However, a 15-day pumping schedule will be issued weekly by the port Harcourt control center and revised as required. Schedulers at NNPC headquarters and operating personnel at port Harcourt and depot stations will view the 15-day pumping schedule to ensure they have a mutual understating of the planned movement both at origin and dewberry terminal if this review indicates a conflict or minister predation of the schedule, the local operations supervisor will contact the supervisor of pipeline control at port Harcourt control center for clarification.
A quarterly product movement forecast will be issued by the NNPC hindquarters for planning purpose.
Dispatening personnel at port Harcourt are to furnish all depot stations with updated delivery times at least 1 day prior to delivery.