GROWING THE ECONOMY OF MBANABO PEOPLE THROUGH MASSIVE CULTIVATION OF YAM (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED COMMUNITIES OF MBANABO AREA, AWGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
This research work titled growing the economy of Mbanabo people through massive cultivation of yam a case study of selected Communities of Mbanabo Area, Awgu local government area. the researcher examined the relevance of yam cultivation in the development of Enugu state and Mbanabo clan in particular. Evaluated the impact of yam cultivation on job creation in Mbanabo community and Enugu state. Examined the extent at which the people of mbanabo clan cultivate. Identified the problems associated with yam cultivation in Mbanabo clan and proffer possible solution to the problem identified. Data for the study was sourced from two main sources Primary and Secondary. Primary data were sourced from the use of questionnaires and oral interviews. Secondary data were sourced from journals, and other relevant materials. Extensive literature review was carried out on the direct literature and indirect literature on books, journals and past works. The research instrument used in this study includes oral interview and questionnaire. The questionnaire is structural as to contain both close and open ended question. Simple tables and percentages were used in treatment of data. At the end the researcher found out that Yam cultivation is very important in the development of Enugu state and Mbanabo in particular. It was also discovered yam cultivation has significant impact on job creation in Mbanabo community and Enugu state in general. This study equally shows that the people of Mbanabo cultivates yam in the recent time to a large extent. Based on the findings above, the researcher recommends that Agricultural mechanization should be encouraged as it would reduce labor cost. This can be achieved through the provision of tractors to farmers groups at subsidized prices and establishment of tractor hiring centre’s at affordable prices. Agro-chemicals especially fertilizers should also be provided by government to farmers at subsidized rate. This will also help to reduce the cost of farm inputs and increase productivity. The cost of planting materials (yam sets) constitutes major part of variable costs of yam production. Government should therefore commercialize yam mini sett technique and make it available and affordable for rural farmers in the state.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page. . . . . . . . . ii
Approval page.. . . . . . . . iii
Dedication. . . . . . . . . iv
Acknowledgement. . . . . . . . v
Abstract. . . . . . . . . . vi
Table of contents . . . . . . . vii
1.1 Background of the study . . . . . 1
1.2 Statement of problems . . . . . 5
1.3 Objective of the study. . . . . . 6
1.4 Research Question. . . . . . . 8
1.5 Significance of the study.. . . . . 8
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study. . . . 9
1.7 Definition of Terms.. . . . . . . 11
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 An Analysis of Yam Production in Nigeria . . . 12
2.2 Trends in Yam Production. . . . . . 15
2.3 Socioeconomic Importance of Yam Production.. . 17
2.4 Constraints to Yam Production.. . . . . 20
2.5 Yam Consumption and Production in Nigeria . . . 24
2.6 Yam Consumers in Nigeria . . . . . . 24
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Research Method . . . . . . . . 27
3.2 Research Design . . . . . . . . 28
3.3 Population of the Study . . . . . .28
3.4 Determination of Sample size . . . . 30
3.5 Sampling Technique. . . . . .32
3.6 Measuring Instrument . . . . . . . 32
3.7 Validity and Reliability of the instrument . 33
3.8 Method of Data Collection . . . . . 34
4.0 Data Presentation and analysis of Result
4.1 Data Presentation . . . . . . . 36
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings. . . . . . 46
5.2 Conclusion. . . . . . . . 47
5.3 Recommendations. . . . . . . 47
Bibliography . . . . . . . 49
1. 1 Background of Study
Yam (dioscoreaspp) is the common name for some species in the genus dioscorea (family dioscorea). It is an annual tuber and monocotyledonous crop. These are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the utilization of their starchy tubers in Africa, Asia, Latin American and Oceania. There are about 600 species of the genus dioscorea with the only 10 species producing edible tuber. But only 6 species are extensively cultivated in Africa. These are white yam (dioscorearotundata), yellow yam (dioscoreacayenensis), water yam (dioscoreaalata), bitter yam ( dioscoreadumetorum), aerial yam (dioscoreabulbifer) and Chinese yam ( dioscoreaesculenta). And only 3 of them are available in Nigeria. In Nigeria there are white yam, yellow yam and water yam.
In Africa including Nigeria, dioscorea rotundata is the most widely cultivated species. (Umar et al 2006). FAO (2002) reported that Nigeria accounted for about 71% (26000000tons) of the total world production of yam harvested from 2760 ha. Yam production in Nigeria has more than tripled over the past 45 years from 87000000 tons in 1961 to 31.3million tons 2006. This increase in output is attribute more to the large area planted to yam than to increased productivity area cultivated to yam production is still being increase, production growth rate declined tremendously from average of 27.5% between 1986and 1990 3.5% in the period between 1991 and 1999 ( FAO, 2002). However 2001 and 2006 production growth rate increased by 31.3%. Record of yield showed similar trend during the same period. Average yield per-hectare dropped from 14.9% between 1986 and 1990 to 2.5 5 in the period between 1991 and 1995. However, the period between 2001 and 2006 recorded 23.45% increase in the average yield (izekor and olumese 2010).
Yam production trend in Enugu state has been observe to be fluctuating for the past 15 years and has not kept pace with other major yam production state in the country. The production index was estimated at 1.174000000 metric tons in 2000. Yam production output in the state dropped to 1.00331000 000 metric tons in 2003 there was significant rise to 1.26428,000,000 metric tons in 2006 with the cultivated area of 120400 ha. In 2008 the total area cultivated for the state reduced to 104560 ha and the corresponding production output was 1286.96 metric tons. The production figure for 2008 marked the beginning of increase yam production in the state as the production of yam increase 1.36160000000 metric tons in 2009 with cultivated area of 114620 ha.
On the basis of quantity of root and tuber crops produced in Nigeria, yam ranks seconds to cassava. Yam is perfect stable food appreciated in its state and cultural pole.
It is a major source of energy in diet of Nigeria people. Yam can be eaten when boiled, roasted, baked, or fried. It can also be processed into crude flour by drying thin slices in the sun and then pound or ground into flour. Yam can further be processed into instant flakes producing a food. Similar to instant potato and can also be made into fried chip. Most of starch industries also make use of yam as one of their important raw materials it provides job opportunities and income to both the produces and the marketers. Yam peels serve as feed for livestock and as a good component of farm yard manure. It is used as laboratory crop for scientific investigation.
1. 2 Statement Of Problem
As food crop the place of yam in the diet of Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. It contribute more than 200 dietary calories daily, for more than 150 million people in west Africa as well as serving as an importance source of income (babaleye,2003). According to okenwe, orewa and emokoro (2008), yam contains a high value of rotein (2.4%) and substantial amount of vitamins and minerals than some other common tuber crops. It is also comparable to any starchy root crops in energy and the fleshy tuber is one of the main sources of carbohydrates in the diet of the most Nigeria. Yam also play vital roles in traditional culture, rituals and religion as well as local commerce of Africa people (izekor and oluemese, 2010).yam is reported to be part of religions heritage of several Nigeria tribes and often play key role in religious ceremony (amusa, 2000). Due to the importance attached to yam many communities in Nigeria celebrate the new yam festival annually.
In Nigeria, some of the constraints to yam production are unavailability of planting materials, soil-degradation, poor handling and storability, pest and disease and other environmental factors (ibitoye and attah 2012). Seed yam for cultivation has continued to be a problem for the farmers. The cost producing yam is also observed to be higher compared with other tubers in the country this is largely due to the high cost of seed yam. On the average about 25% of the annual yam harvested is used as see yam. (Kushwaha and polycrap 2001). This situation has caused yam cultivation to suffer a sever set back due to high cost of production. It is in light of these problems that the study assessed the economic performance of yam production in Awgu local government area of Enugu state, Nigeria.
1. 3 Objective Of The Study
This research work titled growing the economy of mbanabo people through massive cultivation of yam a case study of selected communities of mbanabo area, Awgu local government area.
The specific objectives of this research work include the following;
· To examine the relevance of yam cultivation in the development of Enugu state and mbanabo clan in particular.
· To evaluate the impact of yam cultivation on job creation in mbanabo community and Enugu state
· To examine the extent at which the people of mbanabo clan cultivate
· To identify the problems associated with yam cultivation in mbanabo clan and proffer possible solution to the problem identified.
1. 4 Research Questions
Based on the objectives above, the researcher developed the following research questions.
· Does yam cultivation contribute to the development of Enugu state and mbanabo clan in particular?
· What are the impacts of yam cultivation on job creation in mbanabo community and Enugu state in general?
· To what extent do the people of mbanabo cultivate yam in the recent time?
· What are the problems associated with yam cultivation in mbanabo clan?
1. 5 Significance Of The Study
This research work will be of immense help to:
· THE RESEARCHER: it will help the research to know more on the impact of yam cultivation in the economic growth of the people of mbanabo.
· AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVE IN THE AREA:
It will also be of great importance of agricultural co-operatives in mbanabo as it will enrich their knowledge on the benefit and usefulness yam cultivation in the area.
This study will be of great importance to the country in Nigeria as it will help the policy makers to politicize laws that will guide agricultural produce in the country as it will help in the development of agriculture and as well as the development country.
1. 6 Scope And Limitation Of The Study
This study is carried only at examine the impacts of yam cultivation in the economic growth of the people of mbanabo for the purpose of this study, the researcher selected four communities in mbanabo. The communities are Ihe, Agbogugu, Owelli, Ogbaku.
The researcher in carrying out this study encounters numerous problems which includes;
· FUND: this included lack of enough fund to move around and visit the organizations, the researcher equally needed enough money to source material which constitutes impediment. High cost of transportation in the city due to long distance also imposed its own limitation on the researcher.
· LACK OF RESEARCH MATERIALS: lack of research materials was also one of the problems faced by the researcher in the cause of this research work.
· RESPONDS OF THE RESPONDENTS: another constraint to the researcher is that some of the respondents found it difficult to express their view regards to the subject matter.
From the above points the researcher tried her best to bring out a detailed study on the impact of yam cultivation in the economic growth of the people of mbanabo but the above constraint have limited the researcher to only four communities in mbanabo clan.
1. 7 Definition Of Terms
To make this research clearer and understandable, some terms are defined by the researcher to make the research comprehensive.
· AGRICULTURE: Agriculture is defined as the growing of plants and keeping of animals to obtain food, income and others products.
· LAND TENUREB SYSTEM: this is a system of land ownership whereby a piece of land is being owned either by an individual or a community.
· AGRICULTURAL SUB-SIDES: there are funds government given to farmers to support their operation or it may come in form of indirect support such as providing low- cost crop insurance of fertilizers.
· AGRIC-INNOVATION: this is the discovery agricultural machinery and farming practices.
· FMARD: federal ministry of agriculture and rural development.