COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ORLU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, IMO STATE)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page - - - - - - - - i
Title Page - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval page / Certification page - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vi
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 1
1.1 General Overview of the Study - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 5
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - - 6
1.4 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 10
1.5 Research Questions - - - - - - 11
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - 12
1.7 Limitations of the Study - - - - - 13
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 15
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - 17
2.1 Understanding Poverty and the Solution - - - 18
2.2 Housing problem in Nigeria - - - - - 20
2.3 Co-operative Grouping - - - - - 23
3.0 Research Methodology - - - - - 35
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 35
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - 36
3.3 Sampling Design - - - - - - 37
3.4 Method of data Collection - - - - - 37
3.5 Procedure for Processing Data (Using % Method) - 39
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data - - - - 41
4.1 Presentation of Data - - - - - - 41
4.2 Analysis of Data - - - - - - - 44
4.3 Decision or Interpretation - - - - - 47
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations - 48
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 48
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 50
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 51
Bibliography - - - - - - - 54
1.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Co-operation provides vehicle for broadening and enriching live, infect co-operatives are playing leading roles in some of the largest and most important social and economic development of our times (source).
Co-operatives are vital element in many places in the world today and that they are flexible instruments that can be adopted to serve their members in the future. Co-operative all over the world are man aged democratically both in principle and structure. The present in Nigeria is creating a new environment and offer new opportunities that are favorable to the development of co-operatives in Nigerian.
These new condition offer themselves both co-operative and international companies.
Furthermore to justify its prime role is social, economic and political development particularly in developed counties like England known for consumer co-operative France known for credit co-operatives the movement is a world wide phenomenon. It has developed from single traditional forms of mutual institution. The institution has gamed world wide acceptance because of the great rote. It has been playing in the developing counties. The economic success of co-operatives inevitable yield which in turn yield better income and which in a sense means better living standards for members and their fertilizes.
The creeping poverty facing Nigeria has been well documented the World Bank and United Nations. Perhaps a better picture can be given by looking at the condition of the children who suffer permanent damages because of poor education in adequate diet and dilapidated housing. The health problems of the children of the rural drivellers are.
Particularly serve as indicated by the medical doctors who examined children in the country during the last house to house immunization. The parents of those children are unemployed, some of them are underemployed.
Underemployment refers to a situation where workers who are qualified for a job have no job perform. While underemployment occurs when productive resources are not utilized to their full capacity for example, a person who is sweeping floor is underemployment. It is possible to have full employment yet there is under employment, suppose you receive your degree in economics but the job you could find was pumping gas. In this situation you are employed, but underemployed.
Also one of the economic problems that has continued to eat deep into the system and to poverty is inflation. This is the persistent up ward movement in the general price level or average price level for goods and services. This is decrease in the general level of purchasing power of the Naira. As the price level goes up, the purchasing power of the naira doctrines as well as when the price level goes down the purchasing power of the naira rise. The litter money in the hands of rural poor masses cannot buy any thing as a result of the inflation in the state presently practicing is a discipline of hunger and poverty.
There are other erits which includes mean’s exploration of man, falsification of weight and measures child labor unfair competition etc. it is all these short comings (evils) of the individual capitalism which the o-operative system want to subdue and suppress in its entirety.
Development and its importance especially rural development cannot be overemphasized in Nigeria. In a state where more than to percent of the populations are rural drivellers, it becomes more crucial while emphasis should be placed on the rural pleasant, with out them, the key to substantial and grass root development cannot be realized in the state. Therefore rural development whether embarked upon by the national Government through the development of co-operative societies must take into account the real need and the aspiration of the rural people, it must also involve ways of making them part and parcel of the development programmes through proper mobilization and empowerment.
Finally, poverty alleviation and programmes (PAP) currently being approved by obansend government. Poverty eradication or alleviation can only work through the rural dwellers imitating change by organizing societies like cop-operatives which they can control. These cop-operatives have had varying degrees of success elsewhere lie England, will consumer co-operatives and finance, with industrial cop-operatives movement, just to mention bat a few.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The socio-political environment existing now in the country since man 1999 when the present governments of CHIEF IKEDI OHAKIM administration look over is quite different from what it was in those early days of military regime and pure capitalism. Today it is the mixed economy every where with both private and public properties in existence. Nobody will went the society to return to the old dictatorship and subsistence living. Everybody enjoys high technology, division of labor, mass production of a wide assortment of good the right and freedom of the masses are respected the interference from government in other business organization like the co-operatives are less. These and more are the characteristics if the modern economy.
Co-operative which provides the technology for the masses and their participation in those functions of the ceremony that implied on their lives
Some of the problems are:
· Capital accumulation
· Population high or lows state which
ILLITERACY: this affects the country so much where a person cannot read and write.
UNEMPLOYMENT: This refers to a situation where workers who are qualified for jobs to perform. It also occurs when person who is capable or willing to work.
INFLATION: This is a situation where the goods is increasing continuously in a price level of goods and services in country at particular time.
CAPITAL ACCUMULATION: poor capital accumulation is the fallout of poor savings, poor investment and low productivity. In under developed counties the ability to invest is low, hence less productivity and low savings.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The national poverty eradication programme (NAPEP) came in to being in January 2009 to replace the defunct poverty alleviation programme. The objectives of national poverty eradication programme (NAPEP) are to eradicate absolute.
They ensure that all Nigerians are provided with:
1. Steady source of income
2. High purchasing power
3. Abundant good quality and nutritional food
4. Basic health care facilities
5. Good quality education
6. Good quality drinking water
7. Good standard of housing units
8. Stable and affordable power supply
9. Cheap and affordable consumer products
10. Good urban and rural communication facilities
11. Conducive environment for production and trade.
The economic development is measured by the ability to achieve certain goals or target. These goals, target relates to bolt state and individual citizens. When maturity of interest between the state and the individual prevails the opportunity for success is greatest for co-operative make their maximum contributions to poverty alleviation and economic development, they must be complimentary rather than completive with the interest of the actual or potential members of co-operative. Because these associations benefit from those who use their services they are in strategies position to primate economic development and poverty alleviation.
The overall objectives of national poverty eradication programme (NAPEP) is to eradicate obsolete poverty in Nigeria by the year 2010, the first stage is to resolve hope to most of the effected people by lowering the poverty line and pushing the people above the line.
The second stage is the restorations of economic independence whereby most Nigerians particularly in rural areas shall be very active in clearly define national development activities.
The third stage was designed to be that of wealth creation whereby all Nigerians would be empowered to afford all basic necessities of life and actively be part of national development.
In achieving its objective of eradicating absolute poverty in Nigeria by the year 2010, the various ministries and agencies have executed products aimed at reducing the poverty level. A total number of youths were trained all over the country the capacity acquisition programme (CAP) while 76,532 graduates were training under the mandatory attachment programme (MAP) also a total of youth information centers were built in each state and 2 in the FCT. A total of 2,497 three wheel paggio vehicles (KEKE NAPEP) where also sold to beneficiaries of a discount all over the country.
These direct contributions to their individual members also strengthen co-operative opportunities to help in the achievement of national goals.
It is in this direction that this research study further gathers spiral momentum that this to active the following strategies.
1. Know the economic ventures co-operative can embark on.
2. To what extent do such economic ventures contribute is alleviating the poverty of the messes.
3. The values of co-operative development.
4. Suggesting ways of building up capital for co-operative so as to enable them diversify into profitable ventures.
5. Obstacles hindering co-operative economic development and opportunities.
6. Solution to such obstacles and relate them to all co-operative societies.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research’s area of study is the co-operative department of Nigeria agricultural co-operative and rural development bank in Nigeria.
It came into being in the year 2000 following the merger of the former NACB (Nigeria Agriculture and co-operative bank limited with PBN people bank of Nigeria).
This Nigeria agricultural co-operative and rural development bank acts as a lender providing financed and advisory services for agricultural and rural development deploying appropriate technology, light skilled and economic staff, there by contributing to the economic transformation of Nigeria and Nigerians also. The duty of this organization includes lending many to framers of self help groups, other without the involvement of any intermediary.
This organization has staff strength of one hundred. They have paid employees that receive monthly salaries depending on their qualification and grade level which encompasses first school learning certificate to degree holder.
There are source difficulties that militate against the study such as time and the gathering of research materials. This seems to e one of the major constraints of the study. Lack of materials in the school library as a while every big hindrance to the research work. There are other factors such as finance to embark on source research, this is intensive research work. These drams back the rate of improvement that would have been achieved.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.