This complication dealt with taxation as a subject, its principles objectives, classes, purpose and effect in any given economy weather.
Taxation is a compulsory but non-punitive levy on properties, income of individual and co-operation bodies. The money raised there constitutes part of source of finance for general government expenditure in the economy. It involves transfer of resources or income from private sector to the public sector in order to accomplish or achieve some of the major economic social and economic responsibilities under taken by the government.
Taxation according to the encyclopedia is the process by which the people pay for the expenses of the government.
System of taxation taxes are classified as progressive proportional or regressive according to the percentage of income they take as income raises or fails.
a. Progressive Tax System: Under the progressive taxation, the higher the proportion of income, which is taken away as tax and lower the income, the proportion of income taken away an increasing proportion of raises.
b. Proportional Tax System: This system whereby the rate of taxation is the small for all human earners.
c. Regressive Tax System: The higher the income the lower the percentage income which is taken away as tax. Regressive taxation s common where the rich and poor have to pay some amount of money as tax, either directly as poll tax indirectly in the form of higher prices. A goods and services consumed by both the rich and the poor. In west Africa most taxes are regressive since people in the various communities are usually asked to pay certain fixed sum of money toward certain development project. Irrespective of income and also since indirect taxes like import and export duties from a greater proportion of government revenues.
SOME ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF TAXATION
1. A deterrent to work: Heavy direct taxation especially when closely linked to current earnings can act as a serious check to production by encouraging absenteeism and making men disinclined to work overtime. However direct taxation may actually increased to incentive to work in order to earn more money as to buy goods which the indirect taxes have made clearer.
2. A deterrent to Savings: Taxation will clearly reduce people’s ability to save, since it leaves them with less money as their disposal. Taxation may therefore act as deterrent to savings.
3. A deterrent to enterprise: Those who regard profit as a round for enterprise condemn tax on profit because they consider that such taxes checks enterprise. It is argued that the business men will embark on large profit if they are successful. Heavy taxation on profit, it is said, robs them of their possible reward without providing compensation on the case of failure.
4. Taxation may encourage inflation: We have already seen that one of the methods used to fight inflation is to budget for a large surplus, the object being to reduce by increased taxation the amount of purchasing power in the hands of consumers, with full employment however increased indirect taxation will lead to demand for higher wages, thereby encouraging inflation.
5. Diversion of Economics: Taxation of commodities may force produce to direct resources into tax free areas irrespective of the people’s wish.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENT xii
BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRIES 1
AUTHOR INDEX 4
CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX 5
SOURCE INDEX 6
1. Eziyi, Kalu. 2009. Abia lays foundation of multi-million mechanic village. Financial Standards. 2 Feb., 49.
2. Olaniyi, 2009. Real estate development can solve hosing problem. Financial Standards. 9 Feb., 46.
3. Okenwa, Stan. 2008. Property Values rise beyond expectation. Daily Champion. 17 Nov., 31.
4. Akubu, John. 2009. British council donates equipment to school in Kano. Financial Standards. 2 Feb., 12.
5. Adebimpe, Afuku. 2008. Cornerstone insurance quarter 3 premium hit N 3.0b. Daily Champion. 20 Nov., 4.
6. Alao, Salimo. 2009. Expert suggests categorization of banks to solve financial crisis. Daily Champion. 29 April, 6.
7. Buchanna, J.M. 2010. Public finance relation. National Tax Journal. 4, No 2: 32-29.
8. Aboye, Patrick. 2012. South Africa has first budget surplus. Daily Sun. 26 Feb., 34.
9. Akwaja, Chima. 2009. Federal government wants to tackle intellectual property piracy. Financial Standards. 9. Feb., 7.
10. Anyanwucha, B.A. 2013. Classification of tax Onitsha African publishers. Direct Tax in Economy.
11. Anyanwucha, R.A. 2012. Function of taxation. Onitsha African publishers.
12. Adideji, Aganga Williams. 2013. Putting excess crude oil income to work. The Punch. 20 Nov., 14.
13. Emeana, Chinedum. 2011. Bayelsa surviving on agricultural income. Financial Standards. 2 Feb., 52.
14. Zanab, Bon. 2010. Income generating activities. Daily Sun. 21. Feb., 21.
15. Esin, Hilda. 2012. Nigerian first virtual income opportunity programme launched. This Day. 18, Dec., 5.
16. Duru Nnamdi. 2011. Insurance firms collatorate on marketing. This Day. 15 April, 34.
17. _________________. 2011. Champion insurance day guest lecturer. Daily Champion. 12 Dec., 20.
18. Okenwa, Stan. 2008. Investing in rewarding. Daily Champion. 17 Nov., 34.
19. Herberter, Goltfriend. 2011. Economic growth and stability: Analysis of economic change and policies in taxation. New York: Green Hill.
20. Iba, Louis. 2009. Federal government set to raise new policy for transport sector. Daily Sun. 21. Feb., 41.
Adideji, Aganga Williams
2008 3, 5, 10, 18
2009 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 20
2010 7, 14
2011 13, 16, 17
2012 8, 11, 15
2013 10, 12
Daily Sun 8, 14, 20
Daily Champion 3, 5, 6, 17, 18
Financial Standard 1, 2, 4, 13
National Tax Journal 7
The Punch 12,
This Day 15, 16
Direct tax in economy 10, 11
INDEX COMPILATION OF TAXATION IN NIGERIA (2008 – 2014)
OZOEMENA OLUCHUKWU GRACE
PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE, SCHOOL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
This work is dedicated to God Almighty who has been making thing possible for me.
This bibliography is on taxation. It is meant to satisfy the research needs in both students and lecturers. The inadequate availability of information for student and researcher in the field of taxation has been a major problem in the world of academics.
This factor has been the highest motivation in the compilation of the bibliography.
I hope it will be useful for student, lecturers and scholars of all grades, who are seeking information on the best text to taxation.
In the course of the compilation of this work, courses use explored and exploited including books, articles, books reviews, journals, magazines and newspapers.
Bringing this to a successful completion, I give much thanks and gratitude to some thoughtful individual who made this a reality for me.
Firstly, I am grateful to the Almighty God who for his infinite mercy gave me the life to begin this project and to finish it without problems. I also wish to thank my able supervisor, Mrs. Onyejeakor Sandra for who through her careful through criticism and helpful suggestions made through for the successful execution of this bibliography.
My thanks goes to my loving parent Mr. and Mrs. Basil Ozoemena, to my siblings and also to my guardians both home and abroad, for their love, financial support and advice. I am also grateful to everyone who stood by me through this heavy challenge of writing and making do with mind, mostly my friends, Ozoemena Ogochukwu, Eke Chioma, Calista, Oge, Chinenye, Henry, Ifenna, Chineze, U.C. Chidimma, Amara, Mr. and Mrs. Chimezie Chikaodili, Mr. Bright, BS’1 and Mmasi with utmost prayer of fruitfulness I show appreciation.