MARKETING PROBLEMS OF SMALL-SCALE INDIGENOUS PHARMACULTICAL MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN NIGERIA.
(A CASE STUDY OF ENCRISTO PHARMACULTICAL INDUSTRIES NIGERIA LIMITED, ENUGU).
This work was on the marketing problems of small-scale indigenous pharmaceutical manufacturing company in Nigeria (a case study of Encristo Pharmaceutical Industry Nigeria Limited, Enugu).
The researcher setout with the following objectives.
To find out if quality of products is a problem to Encristo Pharmaceutical Industry.
To find out the inadequate capital of the company and how it affects the marketing activities of Encristo Pharmaceutical industry, amongst others.
Four hypothesis were formulated. A review of related literature was also done to expose the researcher to what has been previously done to ensure a sound basis for the research.
A structured questionnaires were developed and administered by the researcher to staff and management, and customers/consumers of Encristo pharmaceutical industry products.
Chi-square was used to test the four hypothesis formulated.
The following findings were made the Encristo pharmaceutical industry have marketing problems, funds inhibit their expansion.
That the marketing problems of Encristo pharmaceutical industry as a small-scale industry include lack of finance, supply of enough quantity of raw materials, laboured managed problems, marketing/promotional problems. Until the government and management of small-scale industries including Encristo pharmaceutical industry wake up to the challenges facing them, small-scale industries cannot survive and flourish in sufficient numbers to complete the industry of the future.
The following recommendations were made.
The Encristo pharmaceutical industry should improve on t heir products performance by making use of research work.
The government should wake-up to their responsibilities by providing all the necessary requirement for the survive of small-scale industries in an ever dynamic marketing environment.
The researcher strongly believes that if these recommendations are carried out the Encristo pharmaceutical industry will serve their customers better and at a profit.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Research Hypothesis
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Overview of Marketing
2.2 Overview of Small-scale Industries
2.3 Important Consideration in Establishing Small-scale industries
2.4 Government and Small-scale industries
2.5 Marketing problems associated with small-scale industries in Nigeria
2.6 Problems created by small firm themselves
2.7 Prospects of marketing in small-scale industries in Nigeria
2.8 Prospects of marketing in Encristo Industry
CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Sources of Data
3.2 Population of Study
3.3 Determination of Sample Size
3.4 Research Instruments used
3.5 Validity and Reliability of Measuring instruments
3.6 Method of Data Analysis
3.7 Limitation of the Study
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND INTER-PRETATION
4.1 Presentation and analysis of data
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary and Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
With the turn of economic events brought about by the structural adjustment programme (SAP) of 1985 – 1993, Nigerians were challenged to adopt their own technology and establish indigenous business other wise known as entrepreneurship.
Nigerian government introduced the indigenization decree in the 1970’s banning the whole ownership of certain categories of business by foreigners. (Ebue, 2001; 16). The essence of mapping out this objectives was to improved the technology/technical skills, making provision for business management, training, development of women’s skills in food processing, and energy saving and lobbies for training opportunities relevant to small-scale industries.
The comprehensive definition of small-scale industries/business was given by (Ani 1999; 4) derail as owned, managed by one or two persons, influenced by the family in decision making, has no undifferentiated organizational structure, market share is small and employ less than fifty (50) persons.
The small-scale industries in Nigeria are faced with a lot of problems such as lack of initial capital to start up the business, low standard of production which bring about great lost in business and the incapacitation level of local machines and indigene technology which have not gone far to challenge the modern technology. This implies that Nigerian small-scale industries have to struggle for survival in the midst of sophisticated and highly equipped foreign competitors who have so influenced the Nigerian consumers to look down on made in Nigeria goods or products.
The Encristo Nigeria Limited manufacturer of liquid preparations is owned by Chief I.O. Meregim. The company Encristo Nigeria Limited manufacturers was established in the year 1994. The nature of the company is fully a sole proprietorship. The industry was being managed by the family which Chief Meregim is the Chairman and the Chief Executive.
He started his business life right before the Nigerian civil war and ever since then he had an immense growth in import and export business.
Construction, estate trading and pharmaceutical business. His wife has being of a great help to him by sharing her experience as an entrepreneurial and manufacturing business inclination. This has contributed largely to the growth of the company.
The company which in due time started immediately after inception started full operation on 1st June, 1994 with a foundation staff numbering 19, he also in the proper way registered by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control (NAFDAC), pharmaceutical council of Nigeria, Manufacturers Association of Nigeria (MAN) and Pharmacist Manufacturing Group (PMG).
The company’s activities are being directed from its operative heading quarters located at No.8, 2nd Avenue, Independence Layout, Enugu and it is also from here that other sections of Encristo Industries since inception has invested heavily on the manufacturing of liquid drugs, otherwise liquid preparations. The products to the credit of the company’s brand name are includes: -
Cristolyn (cough syrup) Cristom (blood tonic) Ecristo (multivitamin) Cristumal (paracitamol) and Cristoquine (chloroquine).
These products are bottled in both 60ml, 100ml and 200ml amber bottle and 2litres plastic containers (hospital packs) and above.
The company’s giant step has being a contribution to the much desired improvement in the care delivery in Nigeria and to supplement the high demand and consequent importation of drugs which has been on the rise and treat to the national foreign reserve. Moreover, imported drugs have been on the high price side heavily concentrated with unrefined chemicals capable of dangerous after use reactions and affects.
As time goes on the number of the employees or staff has increased to 35 including managerial supervisors assistant manager and operatives.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research is very vital in the sense that the government is
interested in seeing that the made in Nigeria products are for self reliance through establishment of viable small-scale industries.
The problems of Encristo Pharmaceutical Industry which call
for critical evaluation are as follows: -
1. Encristo Pharmaceutical Industry have restraints in
promoting their goods and services.
This is as a result of their poor marketing orientation and low capital base.
2. They also have the problems of producing products that are
rarely competent because production facilities are not always available.
3. They are not always well located because of site cost
4. The Encristo entrepreneur and his marketing officials, lacks managerial know-how initiate policy, cost, control and marketing strategies.
5. Most of the goods produced by Encristo industry in Nigeria
have not adequate and appreciable market acceptance due to the negative attitude of Nigerians towards the made in Nigeria goods.
These are some of the problems of the Encristo indigenous small-scale industry in Nigeria and it is the interest of the researcher to critically examine these problems and find solutions to them.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The intention of this research is to focus on the overall trend
of marketing problems and the performance of small-scale industries in Nigeria.
However, the objectives of the study are as follows: -
1. To find out if quality of products is a problems to Encristo Pharmaceutical
2. To find out the effectiveness and adequacy of the company’s promotional strategies.
3. To find out the inadequate capital of the company and how it affects the marketing activities of the company.
4. To evaluate the marketing efforts and performance of the Encristo Pharmaceutical Industry.
5. To know how the low standard of the production hinders the continuity of Encristo Pharmaceutical Industry.
6. To evaluate the distributor strategies being used by Encristo Pharmaceutical Industry in making their product available
7. To draw recommendations that will assist findings effectively check their marketing problems as well as help government formulate policies that will enhance the performance of small-scale industries.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis tested for this research study are as follows: -
1Ho:Quality of products does not constitute a problem to Encristo pharmaceutical industry
Hi: Quality of products constitute a problem to Encristo pharmaceutical industry.
2Ho:Price of Encristo pharmaceutical industry do not
constitute a problem to the company.
Hi: Price of Encristo pharmaceutical industry constitute a problem to the company.
3Ho:Distribution methods of Encristo pharmaceutical industry to not contribute a problem to the company.
Hi: Distribution methods of Encristo pharmaceutical industry do not contribute a problem to the company.
4Ho:Promotional strategies of Encristo pharmaceutical industry do not constitute a problem to the company
Hi: Promotional strategies of Encristo pharmaceutical industry constitute a problem to the company.
1.5 THE SCOPE TO THE STUDY
The scope covers only the Encristo pharmaceutical industry in
Enugu metropolis, and it is on marketing problems and prospects of small-scale indigenous companies in Nigeria, this is due to some constitutions.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research study marketing problems of small-scale
indigenous pharmaceutical manufacturing companies in Nigeria is a very relevant one to the researcher and the company based on the primary purpose of this research which the purpose was to obtain the valuable and objective information on the marketing problems militating against industries and provide solution to them. This will also be useful and necessary to entrepreneurs especially small-scale industries and encourage investors to design their strategies because production starts and ends with marketing.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Entrepreneur: - According to Collins et al in Nwachukwu
(1990:5), an entrepreneur is defined as a risk taker. He is a man who braves uncertainty. He is a person who strikes out on his own through native wit, devotion to duty and singleness of purpose some how creates a business and industrial activities where non-existed before.
Small –scale business: - According to Ude (1999:2) small-scale business is independently owned and operated for profit and is not dominated in its arrears of operation.
Strategy: - According to Adirika (2000) strategies is a game plan of any firm depicting its objectives, were it is and where it want to be and being able to maintain that state or position which has long term implications.
Marketing: - According to Odike (2001:155) market is defined as a place where the buyers and the sellers come into contact for the purpose of exchanging goods and services.
Production: - This is a process of producing or creating
new goods or products.
Product: -According to Markins (1997) A product is anything that can be offered to the market for attention acquisition use or consumption which includes physical, place, organizations and items.
It is also a burdle of tangible things that offers some levels of satisfaction , for instance, in managing a product variables embraces planning and developing the right goods and/or services to be marketed by the company.