The Effectiveness Of Marketing Communication Mix In Creating Awareness Of A Brand (a Study Of Unilever Plc)

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This project is on the “effectiveness of marketing communication mix in creating awareness of a brand” (using Unilever Nigeria Plc as a case study. The main objective of this study is to find out the effectiveness of marketing communication in increasing the sales revenue of Unilever brother products.In the cause of seeking for information primary and secondary data wee collected data include personal interview and questionnaire allocation. The respondents to these questionnaires are consumers of Unilever products in Enugu metropolis. The secondary data on the other hand, were collected from professional journals, magazines, business and marketing textbooks, newspapers and  internet.  The population of this study is all the resident consumers in Enugu metropolis.  In order to determine the sample size, the researcher used pilot surrey for the resident consumers in Enugu metropolis by using “Bourley’s” formula for consumers because the population is known. He researcher used census of 2006 of Enugu metropolis. The research instrument used for the study were questionnaire and interview. In constructing the questionnaire, the researcher used open ended question and the multiple choice questions the data collected form the respondents through questionnaires use analyzed using tables, percentage statistical tool and chi square technique was employed in testing the hypothesis. Form the invesstigation, it was found out that the Unilever Nigeria Plc makes use namely advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relation and trade exhibition to create awareness and persuade consumers to buy its products. On the findings, the researcher therefore made the following recommendations first, Unilever Plc should intensity the use to public relation to improve its developing image the inhabitant of where the waste water has been casing erosion menace there. The researcher also recommends that Unilever Nigeria Plc should intensify its communication activities in its other product like lux soap, which had attracted very low marketing communication effort, the product might be consumed by marry Nigerians who have insufficient source of good bathing soap.  The researcher concluded by saying that, marketing communication activities others completive advantage to many organization. Therefore to remain in the market in the market, Unilever, has to apply different forms of marketing communication in varying degrees.



Title page         =      =      =      =      =      =      ==    =      =      i

Certification     =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      ii

Acknowledgement    =      =      =      =      =      =      =      iii

Dedication       =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      iv

Abstract   =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      v

Table of contents     =      =      =      =      =      =      =      vi

List of table      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      ix

List of figures   =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      xi


INTRODUCTION      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      1

1.1      Background of the study  =      =      =      =      =      1

1.2      Statement of problem      =      =      =      =      =      2

1.3      Objective of study    =      =      =      =      =      =      4

1.4      Research question/hypothesis=      =      =      =      5

1.5      Significant of study  =      =      =      =      =      =      5

1.6      Scope/delimitation of study     =      =      =      =      7

1.7      Definition of terms   =      =      =      =      =      =      8


LITERATURE REVIEW   =      =      =      =      =      =      10

2.1      Conception frame work    =      =      =      =      =      10

2.2      Definition of communication   =      =      =      =      11

2.3      Importance of communication=      =      =      =      13

2.4      Types of communication  =      =      =      =      =      14

2.5      Communication process =      =      =      =      =      23

2.6      Marketing communication mix        =      =      =      =      25

2.7      How to use 4ps of marketing to communication      26

2.8      Communication planning        =      =      =      =      =      28

2.9      Communication budgeting      =      =      =      =      31

2.10  Communication tools      =      =      =      =      =      33


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         =      =      =      =      =      36

3.1      Sources of Data       =      =      =      =      =      =      36

3.2      Population of study =      =      =      =      =      =      37

3.3      Sample size determination       =      =      =      =      37

3.4      Sample technique    =      =      =      =      =      =      38

3.5      Research instruments used     =      =      =      =      38

3.6      Pretesting or validation of instrument used     =      39

3.7      Questionnaire administration and response rate     40

3.8      Method of data treatment and Analysis   =      =      43


PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA    =      =      =        =      =      =      =      =      =      44

4.1      Presentation Analysis and Interpretation of date     44

4.2      Test of Hypothesis   =      =      =      =      =      =      56


DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION    =        =      =      =      =      =      =      =      63

5.1      Summary of findings       =      =      =      =      =      63

5.2      Recommendations   =      =      =      =      =      =      65

5.3      Conclusion      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      66

Bibliography    =      =      =      =      =      =      =      68

Appendix         =      =      =      =      =      =      =      =      70






Marketing at any stage cannot go without communication. Marketing started as selling activities in which the manufacture produces and expects customers to go in search of the goods. At the next stage the producer recruited sales persons and sends them out to sale the products. At this stage, marketing involved extensive marketing communication tools such as advertising and personal selling. Marketing performs virtually all it’s functions by making use of effective communication.

Modern marketing calls for more than developing particular brand, pricing it attractively and making it accessible to the target customers companies must also communicate with their present and potential customers. Very few goods or services can survive in the marketing place without effective communication. The marketing manager must endeavour to make good use of advertising, sales promotion, publicity and personal selling as the promotional tools of marketing to attain market penetration, a business survival and competitive advantage. In view of the foregoing, the researchers intend to determine the effectiveness of marketing communication mix in creating awareness of a brand in Unilever Plc.



Unilever Nigeria Plc is one of the produces of Lipton yellow label, Blue Band, Royco, paste (close up and Pepsodent), Omo, the country. The company has been witnessing decreasing patronage by the consumers as a result of intense competition from other producers that deal on substitute products, now introduced – what they called high volume with low price in-order to win more market share and patronage. After about two years of that introduction of high volume with low price by Unilever still continued to decrease. The method which was introduced by the marketing manager and production manager lead to their dismissed for failure to deliver.

In order for the Unilever company to alleviate the problem sometime in 1988, the company now introduced the method of door to door step delivery by their workers, that was when convenience were brought in members by the company, the purpose was to ensure that products were available every where both rural and urban shops and market places for them to out weight their competitors and win more market share.

Though after years of door to door step delivery the problems still lies there. The Unilever company is facing the problem of decrease in patronage by consumers people are of the option that effective integration of marketing communication will help boost the sales of the companies brand.




The objective of this study is to examine the marketing communication mix in Unilever, Nigeria Plc. These objectives are as follow:

1)          To find out the effectiveness of marketing communication in increasing the sales revenue of Unilever brothers products.

2)          To find out the effectives of company’s marketing communication on existing and potential users of the company’s brand.

3)          The effect of company’s marketing communication activities in the pricing of a company’s brand.

4)          How the various marketing communication mix a used by a company to achieve a common marketing objectives.

5)          To make recommendation based on the findings



1)      To what extent does marketing communication mix increase the sales volume of the Unilever company brand?

2)      How does the effectiveness of company’s marketing communication affect consumer purchase of the brand?

3)      Does the company marketing communication activities affect the pricing of their brands?

4)      Does the company marketing communication mix facilitate the realization of the company’s objectives?

5)      Which of the communication tools is most effective in the company?



The aim of communication with consumers and the public, by any organization is to let them know the organization is existing and committed other welfare. Without communication most consumers would have been ignorant of the existing of certain brand an sources which are referred to for their satisfaction. More so, organization would find it difficult to dispose off their excess brand/services resulting from mass production.

Thus, there is need for effective communication between the organization and it’s public, once this exist the aim of the organization would be achieved. The significant of this study therefore is to exposed the market to those factors that can make their communication ineffective and to suggest how to avoid those flows that do not fit into the role of a communicator and a promoter. Moreover, knowing that the purchasing power of the consumers is seriously being eroded due to the down turn of the economy and the effect of this is the continuous fall in demand for the band/services of most organization. Increase in price of these brands has also been caused by this recessive economy.

Marketers can find no other time to prove their relevance in the organization than this period and one of the tools that readily comes to mind and which they are close to is marketing communication. So this project work is of great importance to marketers.



This study deals on the marketing communication and creating awareness of a brand at Unilever Nigeria Plc.

The proponents aim to make the results of the study as reliable and accurate as possible but recognizes that there are certain limitations that could affect the accuracy of the data obtained.

The following are the constraints and obstacles met by the researcher during the conduct of the study.

1)          Limited time allotted for the research that must be in one semester.

2)          Limited funds to finance the study since the proponents have to rely only on the meager allowances given by their parents.

3)          Conflict of schedule of classes and when to work on the research work.

4)          Reluctance f the respondents to answer the questionnaire for one reason or another.

5)          Respondents may not reflect their true sentiment in answering the questionnaire.



Schramm (1955: 3) define communication as process of establishing commonness or oneness of thought between sender and receiver.

This definition point out the fact that, for communication to occur there must be a transfer of information from one party the sender which is received and understood by the other party, the receiver. Kotler (2002: 564) defined communication as an interactive dialogue between the company and it’s customers that takes place during the proselling, selling, consuming, and post selling stages.

Marketing is the all important set of creative human activities aimed at identifying, anticipating and satisfying human needs and wants through exchange as efficiently as possible (Adirika 1990: 3)

Taken together, marketing communication presents the collection of all elements in marketing mix that facilitate exchange by establishing shared with the brand customers or clients. It can either be intentional, as in the case of advertising and personal selling, Unintentional as when a product feature package, due or price.

Effective marketing communication is the measuring of the effectiveness of strategy for export marketing which involves looking at the predetermined promotional objectives with a view to determined what extent those objectives have been achieved.


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