THE ROLE OF THIRD WORLD NEWS AGENCIES IN GLOBAL DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION (A CASE STUDY OF NEWS AGENCY OF NIGERIA (NAN)
The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of third world news Agencies in the Global Dissemination of information. The News Agency of Nigerian (NAN) was used as case study.
A survey research method was used in the study and a sample of one hundred (100) persons was selected and administered with questionnaire.
Five hypotheses were formulated and tested for the study. The chi – square was used in the analysis of the data collected from the respondents. Simple percentage was also used in data analysis.
The result of the study was that the third world news Agencies played great role in the global dissemination of information.
The researcher also made a number of recommendations to guide further studies related area of study.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE - - - - - - - i
APPROVAL PAGE - - - - - - ii
DEDICATION - - - - - - - iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - - - - - iv
TABLE OF CONTENT - - - - iv
ABSTRACT - - - - - - - v
1.0 INTRODUCTION - - - - -
1.1 Background of the study - - - -
1.2 Statement of the research problem - -
1.3 Objective of the study - - - -
1.4 Significance of the study - - - -
1.5 Research question - - - - -
1.6 Research hypothesis - - - - -
1.7 Assumptions - - - - - -
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study - -
2.0 Review of Literature - - - - -
i. Sources of literature - - - -
ii. The review - - - - - -
2.1 News Agencies - - - -
2.2 International News Agencies - - - -
2.3 Third World News Agencies - - -
2.4 PAN – African News Agency (PADA) - -
2.5 The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) - -
2.6 New World Information and Communication
Order (NWICO) - - - - - -
2.7 International Debate on new world
information and communication order
(NWICO) Argument put forward by the third
countered- - - - - - -
2.8 Counter Argument put forward by the developed
nations - - - - - - -
2.9 UNESCO intervention - - - -
2.10Non Aligned movement - - - -
2.11Theoretical foundation of the study Development
media theory - - - - - -
2.12Summary of literature revenued notes -
3.0 Research Methodology - - - -
3.1 Research method - - - - -
3.2 Research Design - - - - -
3.3 Research Sample - - - -
3.4 Measuring instrument - - - -
3.5 Data Collection Method of data analysis -
3.6 Expected Result - - - -
4.0 Analysis of Data - - - - -
4.1 Research procedure- - - -
4.2 Detail of questionnaires - - -
4.3 Data presentation - - - -
4.4 Method of presentation - - - -
4.4.1 Analysis of data/findings - - -
4.5 General findings on questionnaires-
5.0 Summary recommendation & conclusion-
5.1 Summary- - - - - -
5.2 Recommendation - -- - - -
5.2.1 Provision of basic amenities - -
5.2.2 Public Enlightenment campaign - -
5.2.3 Employment of qualities valuers
/Revenue collection - - - -
5.2.4 Establishment of efficient revenue
Cdurts - - - - - - -
5.2.5 Provision of vehicles /Boats - -
5.2.6 Method of rate collection and
penalty for defaulters - - - -
5.2.7 Accountability- - -- - -
5.3 Conclusion - - - - - -
APPENDIX - - - - - -
REFERENCE - - - - - -
Background of the Study:
This study sets out to investigate the role of third world News Agencies in the global dissemination of information using News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) as a case study.
News agencies are the bodies responsible for the dissemination of world information. They have correspondents who play the role of carrying news across borders.
Some correspondents such as those working for television and newspaper report back to media in their own countries and they approach the news from the view points of specific readers and viewers. Others report to agencies which distribute their news nationally or internationally circulated magazines and they attempt to achieve a move universal outlook including details of interest to readers from many countries.
News agencies are sometimes called wire services. This is because their offices are literally lived to their clients by wires and cables over which news and pictures flow. Some sophisticated system also employ satellite networks.
News agencies gather, write, echt and send news stores, features, analyses and other materials to clients mostly newspaper, magazines, radio and television stations. The service is also available to commercial houses and individuals seeking news such as those wishing market information. The clients depend on the agencies for the news or information that they cannot gather on their own for economic or other factors.
There are three categories of news agencies. The first category comprises of those agencies known world wide and often referred to as trans-national news agencies or world news agencies. The world news agencies includes, Associated press (AP), United press international (UPI), Felegraphorin Agenstro Sovets vavo soinza (FASKS), Agency France press (APP) and Denters.
The second category includes, news agencies that have clients and correspondents in many countries but whose services are not spread to every part of the global like those of the world news agencies. For example, India press Trust (INPT), Pan African News agencies of individual countries of developing countries. These news agencies are found in Africam, Latin American and Asian countries.
The news agency of Nigeria (NAN) belongs to the third world news agencies. The third world National news agencies act as gate keepers in determining what information from the global flow gets their national media in some cases, deciding what internal news gets into the international system as well.
They are as varied as the third world itself some news agencies still exist mostly on papers and emphasis on development of national agencies by UNFSCO and the IPDC quickly out dates printed summaries.
A report to the MAC Bride commission based on data from the India 1970’s claimed that about 120 nation had news agencies but that about not, including 24 with population in excess of one million people. A more recent (Sussman 1982) survey counted 104 third world agencies, three quarter of them operating under some form of government control.
NAN was founded as a state enterprise and began operating for were 8 years age like most news organizations, its chapter call is for it to report news and opinion in a professional and objective manner.
According to one assessment (Ugbaja 1980) “NAN must not act as an institutional opponent to say government or interest, but where it is in the public interest to report criticism or public policy, it must do so in a restrained and objective manner.”
In most developing countries, news agencies are established, funded and controlled by government. In most cases, they serve as an arm of the ministry of information or clearing houses especially for the purpose of exporting news about government to local and foreign media.
Initially, world news agencies also pre-eminnent in the order of the flow were dominated by the European areas agencies. This to alleged unbalance in the news flow and reporting in the third world countries the inadequacy and the high cost of telecommunication facilities is the greatest obstacles to the foundation of viable news agencies.
Statement of the Research Problem
Communication is the nucleus of all human activities and information dissemination is a vital and sensitive job which requires carefulness and effectiveness in order to achieve the required objective.
News agencies occupy prominent positions and play important roles in carrying information and news across the boarders. Since the emergency of news agency in journalism, the international news flow has improved. News agencies collate, process, edit and distribute news, news materials and features to subscribers either in the form of fees or exchange depending on an agreement.
The international news agencies have been dominating the global dissemination of world news. Agitation on imbalance in news flow led to the emergence of third world news agencies which were most established and controlled by the government. They serve as information clearing houses in the exportation of news about government to local and foreign.
Developing of news agencies in the third world countries is handicapped by lack of important communication equipment for the easy delivery of the news. News Agencies of Nigeria (NAN) is not left out in this area of concern despite these problems, NAN has ployed active role in the global dissemination of world news.
Objective of the Study:
i. To make critical analyses of the role of the third world news agencies in the global dissemination of information.
ii. To work into the functions of NAN, modes of operation, achievement, problems and prospects.
iii. To make number of recommendations on how to improve the services of NAN as regards information dissemination.
Significance of the Study:
The study will provide a comprehensive analysis of the role of the third world news agencies with particular references to NAN in the global dissemination of information.
The study will be useful to other news agencies, media institutions and government of the third world countries in the planning and implementation of their mass – communication policies.
The study will also serve as a reference material to students and other researchers in the similar area of study.
Scope and Limitation of the Study:
The original intention of the research was to study al the third world news agencies but the under mentioned factors compelled her to limit the scope of the study of NAN.
Firstly, time factor is the greatest problem of the research. A reasonable amount of time was needed for collection of materials especially for the review of related literature. Individual appointments as well as library deadlines had to strictly adhered to. Lecturer and class assignments had their own share of the little time at the researcher’s disposal.
The second factor is financial constraint. It is an established fact that research of the research needed money not only for project execution but also for discharge of flow academic assignments including payment of school fees.
Finally, there are other factors that impeded this research but they are mentioned here.