MASS MEDIA AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE)
This research is all about Mass Media and Rural development in Nigerian. And the purpose of writing this topic is to narrates the power of the mass media towards the rural dwellers in terms of development. Mass media is very importance because of its roles to the society which involves education, entertainment, surveillance etc. for instance if there is a cooperative relationship excreting among the two “Media and Rural dwellers” it is core that it will bring enough development to the whole rural dwellers in Nigeria, because through the interaction between the two on media, even if there is anything government want to offer those rural dwellers, they will through media receive the information. This research comprises five chapters, chapter one the background of the study, chapter two literature review, what there were some many authors supported the topic, including Onuora (1985) and others. Chapter three is research methodology, in this chapter comprises every thing concerning however research is being organized especially the calculation on how to determine the sample size of the study etc. Chapter four is data presentation, chapter five is now the summary conclusion following by questionnaire, reference and bibliography.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Definition of Terms
1.9 Theoretical frame work
1.10 Limitation of Scope of Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Sources of Literature
2.2 The review of Literature
2.3 Summary of Literature review
3.1 Research Method
3.2 Research design
3.3 Research population
3.4 Research sample
3.5 Sample techniques
3.6 Method of data collection
3.7 Method of data analysis
3.8 Expected Result
4.1 Data presentation
4.2 Presentation of analysis of sought data
4.3 Test of Hypothesis
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Mass Media involves the use of different medium to transmit or disseminate information to the heterogeneous, audience, and these include the using of radio, television, newspaper, magazine etc to transmit message
Communication has been easier through the help of these media, without these media, message would have been on one sided. New communication technologies have interestingly radically improved the mode of message transmission, they are also attempting to re-defence the concept of Mass Communication Bittner (1989: 262) says New technology is changing the way receive and consume Mass communication is changing to encompass more specialized media.
The various Mass Media of communication are fast becoming the major instrument for promoting development,. The impact of the media has been extended by a vast expansion of audiences which has taken place over the last quarter century aided by the “Transistor Revolution”, radio has become the world’s document Mass Media reading even the rural masses in the third world.
The rural dwellers are those people who lives in undeveloped area. Some of the dominant development problems in these rural people in particular includes: inadequate level of modern Mass Media facilities, lack of government support to provide finance for the various development programmes, High level of deterrent by the rural masses, high level of literary among the rural masses, high level of birth rate among the rural masses (population) etc.
Though the government are doing every thing within their power to solve these problems in order to foster communities and other rural masses with the proper use of the Mass Media.
Mass Media are important for the development of families, communities, villages etc. The media can change peoples altitude and educate people on new knowledge and behaviour.
(Gerbner, 1980) these feature can be used to support development programme. Yet for every person affected by a consciously planned developmental application of media, these are probably thousands influenced by message designed to inform, educate, entertain or to sell.
The best quoted case is “Nsukka Deje nu” which usually done on “radio Nigeria” and even print material “Satellite News paper” to educate and mobilize over two thousand villagers in Nsukka Local Governmnet Area.
A related concept is “development journalism” which has been involving for some years now. primary among mass media are used to inform, educate and entertain people both for and near.
As the president (Good Luck Jonathan) said “I will not let you down, he tells Nigerians” reported by Okey Ndiribe of vanguard Newspaper on Tuesday May 31, 2011 the Nigeria including the rural people, is not left behind, the development of the rural people is now full assured to us by our president.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
In this global age, Mass Media has been regarded as a valuable tool for economic, social and political development in the rural areas. Every community needs the full support of Government on rural development in order to be full civilized, even for them to know the basic needs and situation of the state economy, because of these reasons, it is imperative now for the Mass Media to be used as the only ways by which people will be nurtured on the new developments.
Therefore, for the research, the problem at hand is to find out how the Mass Media has to do with rural development in Nigeria’s? how Mass Media has changed the attitude and behaviour of the rural dwellers who has been exposed to the Mass Media? This project will also look at other variables among the people of Nsukka Local Government of Enugu State.
1.3 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
It is acknowledged that adequate information dissemination is the basis of an informed and rational citizen. The objective of this study includes:
i. To find out how Mass Media could help in improving the lives of the rural dwellers by influencing their attitude, opinions, ideas, conditions etc.
ii. This research will also study how rural dwellers receive and utilize information available to them;
iii. Finally, this project is aimed at finding solutions or recommendations towards the development of the rural area of Nsukka local Government.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The significant of the study has in the fact that it would show how the Mass Media has being performing a vital role in disseminating information to the heterogeneous audiences.
In the absence of Mass Media, the rural dwellers would have been undeveloped, No one among them would have perceived the news of the day, through the means of Mass Media especially the broadcasting media radio and television, people in the rural area have now been enjoying the free news giving to them by the news broadcasters precisely.
Through Mass Media the information dissemination is made possible and even not only that, the new technologies has increased the speed rate of disseminating information to the people in rural places.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
As it has been pointed out some where, these questions of development usually involved issues, policies activities and budget that can only be acceptable or successful through effective government programmes and effective use of Mass Media as fourth estate of the realm, unfortunately, these forgeries are done in a discriminating manner by our government by concentrating in the development of the urban centers, while neglecting the rural ones. Consequently, this has lead to unnecessary friction between the government, Mass Media, and their rural dwellers. These couldn’t have risen if the people were properly informed and persuaded through effective, organized and sustainable of government programmes.
This study will specifically address on the following questions:
i. Do the people of Nsukka Local Government have positive or negative attitude towards Mass Media?
ii. What medium do they choose for effective communication?
iii. Does Mass Media have any influence on rural development?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
To effectively carry out the research, the following hypotheses were formulated:
Hi: Mass Media helps in the development of the rural areas.
Ho: Mass Media does not help in the development of rural areas.
H2: Mass Media have influences in the development of rural areas.
Ho: Mass Media does not have influence in the development of the rural areas
H3: Mass Media is a catalyst in the development of the rural areas.
Ho: Mass Media is not a catalysts in the development of the rural areas.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Mass: This means a large number of people or things grouped together.
ii. Media: This means the main ways that large numbers of people receive information and entertainment, that is television, ratio, and the newspaper.
iii. Rural: Connected with or like the country side rural areas/communities, a rural economy/society, rural America, rural way of life, compare to urban.
iv. Development: The gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced, stonger etc.
i. Mass: This is a group of peoples that lives in heterogeneous ways. They receive the media messages from difference dismission.
ii. Media: This is a process in which messages are being disseminated to the heterogeneous audiences, this involves television, radio, newspaper, bill board etc.
iii. Rural: Mass Media plays a vital roles in the dissemination of messages to the people living in the rural areas.
iv. Development: The act of making use of Mass Media by the rural dwellers has improved the standard of people in the rural, mean while by educating, entertaining, informing them on the happening in the country.
(1) Mass Media play a vital role on rural development
(2) The importance of Mass Media in rural development
(3) Citizens look up to Mass Media for the rural development.
1.9 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
Social responsibility theory by Siebert Paterson and Schraum to the social responsibility theorist, freedom carries concomitant obligations, and the press which enjoys a privileged position under our government is obliged to be responsible to society for carrying out certain essential function of Mass Communication in contemporary society.
Normative theory by Dennis McQuails (1994) explain how ideal media ought to operate within a specific system of social values.
According to Nnanyelugo Okoro and Ben Agbo (2003) the social responsibility theory owes its growth to the realization that the much-trumpeted free press did not exist anywhere. Concerned with the definition of appropriate place of the media in society, a commission on the freedom of the press was set in 1947.
Social responsibility theory by Sicbert Paterson and Schram stated that social responsibility freedom carries concomitant obligations, and the press which enjoys a privilege position under our government is obliged to be responsible to society for carrying out certain essential functions of Mass communication in contemporary society.
However, Mass Communication has four traditional cardinal functions to the society such as, information Education, Entertaining and Persuasion so, this four points are the primary functions of mass communication.
1.10SCOPE OF STUDY
Scope of study means the area of study. A list of towns that made up the Nsukka Local Government was collected from the Local Government Head Quarters.
Ten towns were selected namely
1) Nsukka (Head Quarter)
2) Ede Oballa
5) Ero Ulo
This study was limited due to financial and time constraints and also the dissemination of statistical data made it possible for the research to go beyond this level.