COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MEDIA COVERAGE OF WESTERN TERRORISM AND THAT OF AFRICA
This study was carried out to determine how mass media coverage of western terrorism and that of Africa with Enugu metropolis as a cast study. The research used survey research method and reviewed relevant literature associated with the study. A sample size of 300 was derived from a population 1200. The research used both primary and secondary sources of data collection to analyze and interprete data collected from the study. He also used simple percentages, frequency tables and chi-square were used to analyze and interprete the findings from the study. At the end of the study it was found, that the media gave objective reportage of terrorist activities in Nigeria. The recommendations include
1) That the media should be used as an effective machinery in the coverage of terrorism globally.
2) That all those who engage in terrorist should be brought to book.
3) The media should be backed up by law to enable journalist have access to information.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents vii
1.1 Background Of The Study 1
1.2 Statement Of Research Problem 7
1.3 Objectives of the Study 8
1.4 Significance of the Study 9
1.5 Research Question 9
1.6 Research Hypothesis 10
1.7 Theoretical Framework 11
1.8 Scope of the Study 13
1.9 Limitations of the study 13
1.10 Definition of Terms 14
LITERATURE REVIEW 18
2.1 Source of Literature 18
2.2 Review of Relevant Literature 19
2.3 Summary Of Literature 37
3.1 Research Design 40
3.2 Area Of Study 41
3.3 Population Of The Study 42
3.4 Research Sample 43
3.5 Sampling Technique 45
3.6 Instrument of data collection. 46
3.7 Method Of Data Collection 47
3.8 Method Of Data Analysis 48
3.9 Expected Results 48
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND RESULT 51
4.1 Data presentation and analysis 51
4.2 Testing the hypothesis 65
4.3 Discussion of results 70
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 72
5.1 Summary Of Findings 72
5.2 Conclusion 75
5.3 Recommendation 75
Appendix 1 78
Appendix 11 79
1.1 Background Of The Study
In the years since the September 11 attacks on the United States, there has become a more uncertain and fearful place for people to dwell. The international federation of journalists surveyed the media landscape in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist attacks and the first report, published on 23 October 2001, revealed a fast developing crisis for journalism and civil liberties.
In Nigeria, the immediate aftermath of the September 11 events, a major meeting was held between journalists, editors and media experts on media and terrorism –Lessons of the American Attacks, organized by the International Press Centre (IPC) Lagos, on 25 September 2001. the meeting, supported by the international Federation of Journalists (IFJ) analyzed media converge of the recent terrorist attacks in the united states and the Jos, Platean State, Killings in 2001. the meeting considered the media had been fair balanced and objective in their post-attacks reports.
In the light of 11 September attacks, Laura Murphy. W. says “The lesson of historical examples of inappropriate and unconstitutional domestic surveillance are all the more relevant” “The current US demonstration would remember it’s predecessor breaches of the public trust”, she says. “if congress really wishes to earn American trust, it should ensure that it’s anti-terrorism legislation contain all the essential checks and balance to prevent the political or ideological surveillance of law abiding citizens”.
However, in Africa, there is wide spread concern over reports tainted with religious and race bias, thus violating the principles of ethics and professionalism. There was a strong feeling that the Nigerian media had developed too much attention to the American incident to the detriment of conflicts at home, for example the Jos, Plateau state, Killing of 2001, a major national incident that was equally deserving of attention. At the end of the exhaustive presentations and discussions, it was agreed by (IPC) and (IFJ) that.
i. The media in their further reports must be sensitive to the diversity of social, religious, political, cultural, language of different peoples in different parts of the world; and
ii. The media should condemn terrorism but must restrain from portraying or labeling any particular religion as terrorist. They should abide by their ethics and code of conduct through:
1. Eschewing propaganda,
2. Not embellishing facts,
3. Presenting different sides to the issue to enable the reader or audience to arrive at a balanced conclusion,
4. Avoid being manipulated by politicians and policy makers.
These principles can only be meaningful if journalists continuously remind themselves of the fundamentals of the profession.
Three African terrorist groups are seeking to coordinate and synchronize their operations, the head of US military Africa command General Carter Han Said, Al –Qaeda in the Islanic Maghreb, al- Shabaab in Somalia and Boko Haran in Nigeria, the General said in Somalia that those three groups are increasingly trying to work together on the Africa continent. Each of this group is by it’s Self, a dangerous and worrisome threat, Han said during a leadership seminar of the African center for strategic center, But what really concerns me is that the three organizations are seeking to coordinate and synchronize the efforts”. Through this there force can resist any military hitch, the main motive of the terrorist is to ensure that human rights are denied the citizens.
Restricting human rights in the aftermath of a terrorist attack somehow represents a victory for the terrorists who seek to undermine our way of life, including democracy and human rights. Furthermore restricting freedom of expression is likely to undermine, rather than enhance, long-term strategies to address the problems of terrorism. Frank and open debate is essential to counter both pull factors associated with terrorism.
Not as a surprise after the united Nations organization celebrated it’s 40th anniversary after all the peace and security summit by world leaders both political and religions leaders the world still trailed into the cradle and abyss of terrorism. All these should serve as a test for journalists,this “war against terorrism” is a test for journalism, freedom of speech, accurate and plural information gathering which allows citizens to choose and help those who govern to avoid mistakes and a test also of it’s capacity to demonstrate that human rights in general, freedom of the press in general are the most effective weapon in the fight against terrorism and for the protection of our society.
The responsibility of African and western journalists, particularly, is at stake “we know” says committee on the protection of journalists “indeed, as with a ship’s captain, a democracy’s press freedom ought not to be judged when the sea is calm, but right in the middle of the storm when the familiar guides to navigation disappear and panic is setting in.